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Efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria: revisiting molecular markers in an area of emerging AQ and SP resistance in Mali.

Tekete M, Djimde AA, Beavogui AH, Maiga H, Sagara I, Fofana B, Ouologuem D, Dama S, Kone A, Dembele D, Wele M, Dicko A, Doumbo OK - Malar. J. (2009)

Bottom Line: Amodiaquine was the most effective on fever.No infection with dhps 540E was found.The study demonstrated that sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine were appropriate partner drugs that could be associated with artemisinin derivatives in an artemisinin-based combination therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Malaria Research and Training Center, Bamako, Mali. mtekete@mrtcbko.org

ABSTRACT

Background: To update the National Malaria Control Programme of Mali on the efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

Methods: During the malaria transmission seasons of 2002 and 2003, 455 children--between six and 59 months of age, with uncomplicated malaria in Kolle, Mali, were randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms. In vivo outcomes were assessed using WHO standard protocols. Genotyping of msp1, msp2 and CA1 polymorphisms were used to distinguish reinfection from recrudescent parasites (molecular correction).

Results: Day 28 adequate clinical and parasitological responses (ACPR) were 14.1%, 62.3% and 88.9% in 2002 and 18.2%, 60% and 85.2% in 2003 for chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, respectively. After molecular correction, ACPRs (cACPR) were 63.2%, 88.5% and 98.0% in 2002 and 75.5%, 85.2% and 96.6% in 2003 for CQ, AQ and SP, respectively. Amodiaquine was the most effective on fever. Amodiaquine therapy selected molecular markers for chloroquine resistance, while in the sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine arm the level of dhfr triple mutant and dhfr/dhps quadruple mutant increased from 31.5% and 3.8% in 2002 to 42.9% and 8.9% in 2003, respectively. No infection with dhps 540E was found.

Conclusion: In this study, treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine emerged as the most efficacious on uncomplicated falciparum malaria followed by amodiaquine. The study demonstrated that sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine were appropriate partner drugs that could be associated with artemisinin derivatives in an artemisinin-based combination therapy.

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ACPRs before and after molecular correction. Panel A: Day 14 ACPRs; Panel B: Day 28 ACPRs.
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Figure 2: ACPRs before and after molecular correction. Panel A: Day 14 ACPRs; Panel B: Day 28 ACPRs.

Mentions: Before PCR correction rates of ACPR14 and ACPR28 were unacceptably low for CQ (55.9% and 16.3%), moderate to high for AQ (89.8% and 61.1) and SP (93.1% and 86.9%), respectively (Table 2). However, the majority of the cases of failure were late clinical or parasitological failures. Only one case of ETF was observed with SP treatment (Table 2). After molecular correction, cACPR14 and cACPR28 remained bellow 90% for CQ and AQ but over 97% for SP (Figure 2).


Efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria: revisiting molecular markers in an area of emerging AQ and SP resistance in Mali.

Tekete M, Djimde AA, Beavogui AH, Maiga H, Sagara I, Fofana B, Ouologuem D, Dama S, Kone A, Dembele D, Wele M, Dicko A, Doumbo OK - Malar. J. (2009)

ACPRs before and after molecular correction. Panel A: Day 14 ACPRs; Panel B: Day 28 ACPRs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2651187&req=5

Figure 2: ACPRs before and after molecular correction. Panel A: Day 14 ACPRs; Panel B: Day 28 ACPRs.
Mentions: Before PCR correction rates of ACPR14 and ACPR28 were unacceptably low for CQ (55.9% and 16.3%), moderate to high for AQ (89.8% and 61.1) and SP (93.1% and 86.9%), respectively (Table 2). However, the majority of the cases of failure were late clinical or parasitological failures. Only one case of ETF was observed with SP treatment (Table 2). After molecular correction, cACPR14 and cACPR28 remained bellow 90% for CQ and AQ but over 97% for SP (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Amodiaquine was the most effective on fever.No infection with dhps 540E was found.The study demonstrated that sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine were appropriate partner drugs that could be associated with artemisinin derivatives in an artemisinin-based combination therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Malaria Research and Training Center, Bamako, Mali. mtekete@mrtcbko.org

ABSTRACT

Background: To update the National Malaria Control Programme of Mali on the efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

Methods: During the malaria transmission seasons of 2002 and 2003, 455 children--between six and 59 months of age, with uncomplicated malaria in Kolle, Mali, were randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms. In vivo outcomes were assessed using WHO standard protocols. Genotyping of msp1, msp2 and CA1 polymorphisms were used to distinguish reinfection from recrudescent parasites (molecular correction).

Results: Day 28 adequate clinical and parasitological responses (ACPR) were 14.1%, 62.3% and 88.9% in 2002 and 18.2%, 60% and 85.2% in 2003 for chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, respectively. After molecular correction, ACPRs (cACPR) were 63.2%, 88.5% and 98.0% in 2002 and 75.5%, 85.2% and 96.6% in 2003 for CQ, AQ and SP, respectively. Amodiaquine was the most effective on fever. Amodiaquine therapy selected molecular markers for chloroquine resistance, while in the sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine arm the level of dhfr triple mutant and dhfr/dhps quadruple mutant increased from 31.5% and 3.8% in 2002 to 42.9% and 8.9% in 2003, respectively. No infection with dhps 540E was found.

Conclusion: In this study, treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine emerged as the most efficacious on uncomplicated falciparum malaria followed by amodiaquine. The study demonstrated that sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine were appropriate partner drugs that could be associated with artemisinin derivatives in an artemisinin-based combination therapy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus