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The feasibility of measuring the activation of the trunk muscles in healthy older adults during trunk stability exercises.

Hanada EY, Hubley-Kozey CL, McKeon MD, Gordon SA - BMC Geriatr (2008)

Bottom Line: As the older adult population increases, the potential functional and clinical burden of trunk muscle dysfunction may be significant.Older adults were able to successfully complete the trunk stability protocol that was developed for younger adults with some minor modifications.The temporal waveforms for the abdominal muscles showed a degree of synchrony among muscles, except for the early activation from the internal oblique prior to lifting the leg off the table.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Physiotherapy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada. Edwin.Hanada@cdha.nshealth.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: As the older adult population increases, the potential functional and clinical burden of trunk muscle dysfunction may be significant. An evaluation of risk factors including the impact of the trunk muscles in terms of their temporal firing patterns, amplitudes of activation, and contribution to spinal stability is required. Therefore, the specific purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring the activation of trunk muscles in healthy older adults during specific leg exercises with trunk stabilization.

Methods: 12 asymptomatic adults 65 to 75 years of age were included in the study. Participants performed a series of trunk stability exercises, while bilateral activation of abdominal and back extensor muscles was recorded by 24 pairs of Meditrace surface electrodes. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were performed for electromyographic (EMG) normalization purposes. EMG waveforms were generated and amplitude measures as a percentage of MVIC were calculated along with ensemble average profiles. 3D kinematics data were also recorded, using an electromagnetic sensor placed at the left lateral iliac crest. Furthermore, a qualitative assessment was conducted to establish the participant's ability to complete all experimental tasks.

Results: Excellent quality abdominal muscle activation data were recorded during the tasks. Participants performed the trunk stability exercises with an unsteady, intermittent motion, but were able to keep pelvic motion to less than 10 degrees . The EMG amplitudes showed that during these exercises, on average, the older adults recruited their abdominal muscles from 15-34% of MVIC and back extensors to less than 10% of MVIC. There were similarities among the abdominal muscle profiles. No participants reported pain during the testing session, although 3 (25%) of the participants reported delayed onset muscle soreness during follow up that was not functionally limiting.

Conclusion: Older adults were able to successfully complete the trunk stability protocol that was developed for younger adults with some minor modifications. The collected EMG amplitudes were higher than those reported in the literature for young healthy adults. The temporal waveforms for the abdominal muscles showed a degree of synchrony among muscles, except for the early activation from the internal oblique prior to lifting the leg off the table.

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Motion capture. The Flock of Birds Motion Capture™ sensor was placed on the antero-superior portion of the left lateral iliac crest. Note that the z-axis is positioned perpendicular to the sensor. This sensor records motion with respect to a fixed global reference and not an anatomical reference.
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Figure 2: Motion capture. The Flock of Birds Motion Capture™ sensor was placed on the antero-superior portion of the left lateral iliac crest. Note that the z-axis is positioned perpendicular to the sensor. This sensor records motion with respect to a fixed global reference and not an anatomical reference.

Mentions: A Flock of Birds Motion Capture™ system was used to record the angular motion of the pelvis during the tasks. A sensor was placed on the antero-superior portion of the left lateral iliac crest. The sensors detected changes in 3 D motions with respect to a global reference providing an overall measure of motion, but the measurements can not be related directly to an anatomical reference (Figure 2). The motion data was synchronized to the EMG data via the external sensors with each motion profile normalized to 100% time. The motion data was used to ensure minimal movement of the trunk and pelvis and to confirm that participants were able to maintain their lumbar pelvic position of a neutral spine throughout all tasks.


The feasibility of measuring the activation of the trunk muscles in healthy older adults during trunk stability exercises.

Hanada EY, Hubley-Kozey CL, McKeon MD, Gordon SA - BMC Geriatr (2008)

Motion capture. The Flock of Birds Motion Capture™ sensor was placed on the antero-superior portion of the left lateral iliac crest. Note that the z-axis is positioned perpendicular to the sensor. This sensor records motion with respect to a fixed global reference and not an anatomical reference.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2651173&req=5

Figure 2: Motion capture. The Flock of Birds Motion Capture™ sensor was placed on the antero-superior portion of the left lateral iliac crest. Note that the z-axis is positioned perpendicular to the sensor. This sensor records motion with respect to a fixed global reference and not an anatomical reference.
Mentions: A Flock of Birds Motion Capture™ system was used to record the angular motion of the pelvis during the tasks. A sensor was placed on the antero-superior portion of the left lateral iliac crest. The sensors detected changes in 3 D motions with respect to a global reference providing an overall measure of motion, but the measurements can not be related directly to an anatomical reference (Figure 2). The motion data was synchronized to the EMG data via the external sensors with each motion profile normalized to 100% time. The motion data was used to ensure minimal movement of the trunk and pelvis and to confirm that participants were able to maintain their lumbar pelvic position of a neutral spine throughout all tasks.

Bottom Line: As the older adult population increases, the potential functional and clinical burden of trunk muscle dysfunction may be significant.Older adults were able to successfully complete the trunk stability protocol that was developed for younger adults with some minor modifications.The temporal waveforms for the abdominal muscles showed a degree of synchrony among muscles, except for the early activation from the internal oblique prior to lifting the leg off the table.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Physiotherapy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada. Edwin.Hanada@cdha.nshealth.ca

ABSTRACT

Background: As the older adult population increases, the potential functional and clinical burden of trunk muscle dysfunction may be significant. An evaluation of risk factors including the impact of the trunk muscles in terms of their temporal firing patterns, amplitudes of activation, and contribution to spinal stability is required. Therefore, the specific purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring the activation of trunk muscles in healthy older adults during specific leg exercises with trunk stabilization.

Methods: 12 asymptomatic adults 65 to 75 years of age were included in the study. Participants performed a series of trunk stability exercises, while bilateral activation of abdominal and back extensor muscles was recorded by 24 pairs of Meditrace surface electrodes. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) were performed for electromyographic (EMG) normalization purposes. EMG waveforms were generated and amplitude measures as a percentage of MVIC were calculated along with ensemble average profiles. 3D kinematics data were also recorded, using an electromagnetic sensor placed at the left lateral iliac crest. Furthermore, a qualitative assessment was conducted to establish the participant's ability to complete all experimental tasks.

Results: Excellent quality abdominal muscle activation data were recorded during the tasks. Participants performed the trunk stability exercises with an unsteady, intermittent motion, but were able to keep pelvic motion to less than 10 degrees . The EMG amplitudes showed that during these exercises, on average, the older adults recruited their abdominal muscles from 15-34% of MVIC and back extensors to less than 10% of MVIC. There were similarities among the abdominal muscle profiles. No participants reported pain during the testing session, although 3 (25%) of the participants reported delayed onset muscle soreness during follow up that was not functionally limiting.

Conclusion: Older adults were able to successfully complete the trunk stability protocol that was developed for younger adults with some minor modifications. The collected EMG amplitudes were higher than those reported in the literature for young healthy adults. The temporal waveforms for the abdominal muscles showed a degree of synchrony among muscles, except for the early activation from the internal oblique prior to lifting the leg off the table.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus