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Widespread duplications in the genomes of laboratory stocks of Dictyostelium discoideum.

Bloomfield G, Tanaka Y, Skelton J, Ivens A, Kay RR - Genome Biol. (2008)

Bottom Line: The expression level of many duplicated genes is increased with dosage, but for others it appears that some form of dosage compensation occurs.The genetic variation described here must underlie some of the phenotypic variation observed between strains from different laboratories.We suggest courses of action to alleviate the problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. garethb@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: Duplications of stretches of the genome are an important source of individual genetic variation, but their unrecognized presence in laboratory organisms would be a confounding variable for genetic analysis.

Results: We report here that duplications of 15 kb or more are common in the genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Most stocks of the axenic 'workhorse' strains Ax2 and Ax3/4 obtained from different laboratories can be expected to carry different duplications. The auxotrophic strains DH1 and JH10 also bear previously unreported duplications. Strain Ax3/4 is known to carry a large duplication on chromosome 2 and this structure shows evidence of continuing instability; we find a further variable duplication on chromosome 5. These duplications are lacking in Ax2, which has instead a small duplication on chromosome 1. Stocks of the type isolate NC4 are similarly variable, though we have identified some approximating the assumed ancestral genotype. More recent wild-type isolates are almost without large duplications, but we can identify small deletions or regions of high divergence, possibly reflecting responses to local selective pressures. Duplications are scattered through most of the genome, and can be stable enough to reconstruct genealogies spanning decades of the history of the NC4 lineage. The expression level of many duplicated genes is increased with dosage, but for others it appears that some form of dosage compensation occurs.

Conclusion: The genetic variation described here must underlie some of the phenotypic variation observed between strains from different laboratories. We suggest courses of action to alleviate the problem.

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Duplications are frequent in 'wild type' axenic strains. (a-e) Log2 ratios (each strain compared to the Ax2(Ka) reference) are indicated by vertical lines; array probes are ordered according to their chromosomal location given by dictyBase assembly version 2.5. The previously known Ax3 duplication involves the region of chromosome 2 between approximately 2.25 and 3 Mb, which is wholly contained within the region duplicated in Ax2(Wee).
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Figure 2: Duplications are frequent in 'wild type' axenic strains. (a-e) Log2 ratios (each strain compared to the Ax2(Ka) reference) are indicated by vertical lines; array probes are ordered according to their chromosomal location given by dictyBase assembly version 2.5. The previously known Ax3 duplication involves the region of chromosome 2 between approximately 2.25 and 3 Mb, which is wholly contained within the region duplicated in Ax2(Wee).

Mentions: We examined 11 examples of the Ax2, Ax3, and Ax4 axenic strains. As expected, all Ax3/4 strains share the known chromosome 2 duplication (Figure S1 in Additional data file 1) and we also identified a small duplication/amplification on chromosome 1, common to all Ax2 strains, as described below. Apart from this, 9 of the 11 strains possessed additional duplications, some of which are shared between several lines, indicating clear patterns of relationship. Selected duplications are shown in Figure 2; the sizes and locations of all are given in Table 2, and chromosomal locations are displayed schematically in Figure 3.


Widespread duplications in the genomes of laboratory stocks of Dictyostelium discoideum.

Bloomfield G, Tanaka Y, Skelton J, Ivens A, Kay RR - Genome Biol. (2008)

Duplications are frequent in 'wild type' axenic strains. (a-e) Log2 ratios (each strain compared to the Ax2(Ka) reference) are indicated by vertical lines; array probes are ordered according to their chromosomal location given by dictyBase assembly version 2.5. The previously known Ax3 duplication involves the region of chromosome 2 between approximately 2.25 and 3 Mb, which is wholly contained within the region duplicated in Ax2(Wee).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2643946&req=5

Figure 2: Duplications are frequent in 'wild type' axenic strains. (a-e) Log2 ratios (each strain compared to the Ax2(Ka) reference) are indicated by vertical lines; array probes are ordered according to their chromosomal location given by dictyBase assembly version 2.5. The previously known Ax3 duplication involves the region of chromosome 2 between approximately 2.25 and 3 Mb, which is wholly contained within the region duplicated in Ax2(Wee).
Mentions: We examined 11 examples of the Ax2, Ax3, and Ax4 axenic strains. As expected, all Ax3/4 strains share the known chromosome 2 duplication (Figure S1 in Additional data file 1) and we also identified a small duplication/amplification on chromosome 1, common to all Ax2 strains, as described below. Apart from this, 9 of the 11 strains possessed additional duplications, some of which are shared between several lines, indicating clear patterns of relationship. Selected duplications are shown in Figure 2; the sizes and locations of all are given in Table 2, and chromosomal locations are displayed schematically in Figure 3.

Bottom Line: The expression level of many duplicated genes is increased with dosage, but for others it appears that some form of dosage compensation occurs.The genetic variation described here must underlie some of the phenotypic variation observed between strains from different laboratories.We suggest courses of action to alleviate the problem.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. garethb@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

Background: Duplications of stretches of the genome are an important source of individual genetic variation, but their unrecognized presence in laboratory organisms would be a confounding variable for genetic analysis.

Results: We report here that duplications of 15 kb or more are common in the genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Most stocks of the axenic 'workhorse' strains Ax2 and Ax3/4 obtained from different laboratories can be expected to carry different duplications. The auxotrophic strains DH1 and JH10 also bear previously unreported duplications. Strain Ax3/4 is known to carry a large duplication on chromosome 2 and this structure shows evidence of continuing instability; we find a further variable duplication on chromosome 5. These duplications are lacking in Ax2, which has instead a small duplication on chromosome 1. Stocks of the type isolate NC4 are similarly variable, though we have identified some approximating the assumed ancestral genotype. More recent wild-type isolates are almost without large duplications, but we can identify small deletions or regions of high divergence, possibly reflecting responses to local selective pressures. Duplications are scattered through most of the genome, and can be stable enough to reconstruct genealogies spanning decades of the history of the NC4 lineage. The expression level of many duplicated genes is increased with dosage, but for others it appears that some form of dosage compensation occurs.

Conclusion: The genetic variation described here must underlie some of the phenotypic variation observed between strains from different laboratories. We suggest courses of action to alleviate the problem.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus