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Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

Clement CR, Santos RP, Desmouliere SJ, Ferreira EJ, Neto JT - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation.Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving.Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm.

Methodology/principal findings: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands.

Conclusions/significance: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of Bactris gasipaes var. chichagui in Brazilian Amazonia, against a background of the Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) and Indigenous Lands, as of 2008, with deforestation data from 2000–2007 (INPE-PRODES. Deforestation in Amazonia Legal. http://www.obt.inpe.br/prodes/).Only one third of the SNUC lands have personnel and infrastructure, and none have sufficient personnel to guarantee against invasions.
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pone-0004564-g006: Distribution of Bactris gasipaes var. chichagui in Brazilian Amazonia, against a background of the Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) and Indigenous Lands, as of 2008, with deforestation data from 2000–2007 (INPE-PRODES. Deforestation in Amazonia Legal. http://www.obt.inpe.br/prodes/).Only one third of the SNUC lands have personnel and infrastructure, and none have sufficient personnel to guarantee against invasions.

Mentions: That leaves the Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) and Indigenous Lands for in situ conservation. Unfortunately, the Arc of Fire is not well represented within the SNUC, although the federal government has recently decreed several “paper” conservation units, but there are numerous Indigenous Lands (Figure 6). In fact, the latter tend to have better integrity than the former [47], as indigenous peoples have numerous allies to help protect their lands, while the SNUC lands tend to be uninhabited, although some new Sustainable Development Reserves and Extractive Reserves have been created over the past two decades. Most of the SNUC areas and Indigenous Lands are large enough to have evolutionarily viable meta-populations of wild peach palm, which will survive as long as the integrity of the area is maintained. The only Indigenous Land with current information about wild peach palm is the Kayapó reserve in Ourilândia do Norte, extreme southern Pará, where Salm [32] did not find var. chichagui. The large Xingu reserve in northeastern Mato Grosso apparently does not contain var. chichagui either. In terms of forest cover, it is appropriate, but not in terms of soils (Figures 4 and 5). Nonetheless, other Indigenous Lands certainly do contain wild peach palm, and this can be verified in the future.


Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

Clement CR, Santos RP, Desmouliere SJ, Ferreira EJ, Neto JT - PLoS ONE (2009)

Distribution of Bactris gasipaes var. chichagui in Brazilian Amazonia, against a background of the Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) and Indigenous Lands, as of 2008, with deforestation data from 2000–2007 (INPE-PRODES. Deforestation in Amazonia Legal. http://www.obt.inpe.br/prodes/).Only one third of the SNUC lands have personnel and infrastructure, and none have sufficient personnel to guarantee against invasions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2642997&req=5

pone-0004564-g006: Distribution of Bactris gasipaes var. chichagui in Brazilian Amazonia, against a background of the Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) and Indigenous Lands, as of 2008, with deforestation data from 2000–2007 (INPE-PRODES. Deforestation in Amazonia Legal. http://www.obt.inpe.br/prodes/).Only one third of the SNUC lands have personnel and infrastructure, and none have sufficient personnel to guarantee against invasions.
Mentions: That leaves the Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) and Indigenous Lands for in situ conservation. Unfortunately, the Arc of Fire is not well represented within the SNUC, although the federal government has recently decreed several “paper” conservation units, but there are numerous Indigenous Lands (Figure 6). In fact, the latter tend to have better integrity than the former [47], as indigenous peoples have numerous allies to help protect their lands, while the SNUC lands tend to be uninhabited, although some new Sustainable Development Reserves and Extractive Reserves have been created over the past two decades. Most of the SNUC areas and Indigenous Lands are large enough to have evolutionarily viable meta-populations of wild peach palm, which will survive as long as the integrity of the area is maintained. The only Indigenous Land with current information about wild peach palm is the Kayapó reserve in Ourilândia do Norte, extreme southern Pará, where Salm [32] did not find var. chichagui. The large Xingu reserve in northeastern Mato Grosso apparently does not contain var. chichagui either. In terms of forest cover, it is appropriate, but not in terms of soils (Figures 4 and 5). Nonetheless, other Indigenous Lands certainly do contain wild peach palm, and this can be verified in the future.

Bottom Line: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation.Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving.Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm.

Methodology/principal findings: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands.

Conclusions/significance: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus