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Spillway-induced salmon head injury triggers the generation of brain alphaII-spectrin breakdown product biomarkers similar to mammalian traumatic brain injury.

Miracle A, Denslow ND, Kroll KJ, Liu MC, Wang KK - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk.We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon.To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Sustainability Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America. ann.miracle@pnl.gov

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk. Of specific interest are alphaII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs), which are produced by proteolytic events in traumatic brain injury and have been used as biomarkers to predict the severity of injury in humans and other mammalian brain injury models. This study describes and demonstrates the successful use of antibody-based mammalian SBDP biomarkers to detect head injury in migrating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that have been injured during passage through high-energy hydraulic environments present in spillways under different operational configurations. Mortality and injury assessment techniques currently measure only near-term direct mortality and easily observable acute injury. Injury-based biomarkers may serve as a quantitative indicator of subacute physical injury and recovery, and aid hydropower operators in evaluation of safest passage configuration and operation actions for migrating juvenile salmonids. We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon. To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Correlation between SBDP expression with visible injury index.Open circles represent individual passage treatment fish (n = 20), while closed circles indicate individual control fish (n = 10). Linear regression lines are depicted for each group. A. SBDP120 linear regression r2 = 0.34. B. SBDP110 linear regression r2 = 0.01.
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pone-0004491-g005: Correlation between SBDP expression with visible injury index.Open circles represent individual passage treatment fish (n = 20), while closed circles indicate individual control fish (n = 10). Linear regression lines are depicted for each group. A. SBDP120 linear regression r2 = 0.34. B. SBDP110 linear regression r2 = 0.01.

Mentions: Numerical injury index scores (1–3) were given to injuries to reflect injury severity with increasing physical trauma (abrasion/descaling<eye hemorrhage<eye loss). When compared to observable injuries, increasing expression of SBDP120 showed correlation above a relative expression level of 10 (densitometric units), but expression was also seen above control level without obvious injury (Fig. 5A, r2 = 0.34). The pattern is less clear for increasing expression of SBDP110 (Fig. 5B, r2 = 0.01). A few of the treated fish and one control fish that showed no visible injury had relatively high levels of SBDP110 expression. With the exception of a few treatment fish, most treatment fish had expression levels of SBDP greater than 10.


Spillway-induced salmon head injury triggers the generation of brain alphaII-spectrin breakdown product biomarkers similar to mammalian traumatic brain injury.

Miracle A, Denslow ND, Kroll KJ, Liu MC, Wang KK - PLoS ONE (2009)

Correlation between SBDP expression with visible injury index.Open circles represent individual passage treatment fish (n = 20), while closed circles indicate individual control fish (n = 10). Linear regression lines are depicted for each group. A. SBDP120 linear regression r2 = 0.34. B. SBDP110 linear regression r2 = 0.01.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2637428&req=5

pone-0004491-g005: Correlation between SBDP expression with visible injury index.Open circles represent individual passage treatment fish (n = 20), while closed circles indicate individual control fish (n = 10). Linear regression lines are depicted for each group. A. SBDP120 linear regression r2 = 0.34. B. SBDP110 linear regression r2 = 0.01.
Mentions: Numerical injury index scores (1–3) were given to injuries to reflect injury severity with increasing physical trauma (abrasion/descaling<eye hemorrhage<eye loss). When compared to observable injuries, increasing expression of SBDP120 showed correlation above a relative expression level of 10 (densitometric units), but expression was also seen above control level without obvious injury (Fig. 5A, r2 = 0.34). The pattern is less clear for increasing expression of SBDP110 (Fig. 5B, r2 = 0.01). A few of the treated fish and one control fish that showed no visible injury had relatively high levels of SBDP110 expression. With the exception of a few treatment fish, most treatment fish had expression levels of SBDP greater than 10.

Bottom Line: Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk.We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon.To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Sustainability Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America. ann.miracle@pnl.gov

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk. Of specific interest are alphaII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs), which are produced by proteolytic events in traumatic brain injury and have been used as biomarkers to predict the severity of injury in humans and other mammalian brain injury models. This study describes and demonstrates the successful use of antibody-based mammalian SBDP biomarkers to detect head injury in migrating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that have been injured during passage through high-energy hydraulic environments present in spillways under different operational configurations. Mortality and injury assessment techniques currently measure only near-term direct mortality and easily observable acute injury. Injury-based biomarkers may serve as a quantitative indicator of subacute physical injury and recovery, and aid hydropower operators in evaluation of safest passage configuration and operation actions for migrating juvenile salmonids. We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon. To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus