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Spillway-induced salmon head injury triggers the generation of brain alphaII-spectrin breakdown product biomarkers similar to mammalian traumatic brain injury.

Miracle A, Denslow ND, Kroll KJ, Liu MC, Wang KK - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk.We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon.To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Sustainability Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America. ann.miracle@pnl.gov

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk. Of specific interest are alphaII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs), which are produced by proteolytic events in traumatic brain injury and have been used as biomarkers to predict the severity of injury in humans and other mammalian brain injury models. This study describes and demonstrates the successful use of antibody-based mammalian SBDP biomarkers to detect head injury in migrating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that have been injured during passage through high-energy hydraulic environments present in spillways under different operational configurations. Mortality and injury assessment techniques currently measure only near-term direct mortality and easily observable acute injury. Injury-based biomarkers may serve as a quantitative indicator of subacute physical injury and recovery, and aid hydropower operators in evaluation of safest passage configuration and operation actions for migrating juvenile salmonids. We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon. To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

SBDP120-specific antibody confirming the presence of the SBDP120 fragment in injured salmon brain.Rabbit antibody developed specifically to detect mammalian SBDP120 fragment [19] was used in Western blot analysis of salmon brain lysate for controls and injured (treatment) salmon. (A) representative blot of salmon brain samples (4 controls and 4 injured) are shown. Positive and negative controls were rat brain lysate digested with caspase-3 and calpain-2, respectively (right two lanes). (B) A total of n = 8 from each group were used for densitometric analysis of the SBDP120-specific band intensity, achieving statistical significance (**, P<0.02, Student T-test) between control and injured groups.
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pone-0004491-g004: SBDP120-specific antibody confirming the presence of the SBDP120 fragment in injured salmon brain.Rabbit antibody developed specifically to detect mammalian SBDP120 fragment [19] was used in Western blot analysis of salmon brain lysate for controls and injured (treatment) salmon. (A) representative blot of salmon brain samples (4 controls and 4 injured) are shown. Positive and negative controls were rat brain lysate digested with caspase-3 and calpain-2, respectively (right two lanes). (B) A total of n = 8 from each group were used for densitometric analysis of the SBDP120-specific band intensity, achieving statistical significance (**, P<0.02, Student T-test) between control and injured groups.

Mentions: We further confirm that the SBDP120 observed is identical to the SBDP120 observed in mammalian brain following brain injury by showing that an antibody developed specifically to detect the SBDP120 fragment in mammalian systems [19]. Using a subset of 8 samples per group (which was dictated by availability of brain lysates), the SBDP120 fragment was detected in injured salmon brain lysates (Fig. 4). The results further confirmed that there is a statistically significant two-fold elevation (p<0.02) of caspase-generated SBDP120 in the injured salmon brains (treatment group) when compared to the control brain group (Fig. 4b). As for SBDP110, at the present time, we cannot confirm whether it was generated by endogenous calpain or caspase in salmon brain, since both proteases appear to generate an SBDP of 110 kDa (see Fig. 2) when chemically activated and no SBDP110 fragment-specific antibody tools are available.


Spillway-induced salmon head injury triggers the generation of brain alphaII-spectrin breakdown product biomarkers similar to mammalian traumatic brain injury.

Miracle A, Denslow ND, Kroll KJ, Liu MC, Wang KK - PLoS ONE (2009)

SBDP120-specific antibody confirming the presence of the SBDP120 fragment in injured salmon brain.Rabbit antibody developed specifically to detect mammalian SBDP120 fragment [19] was used in Western blot analysis of salmon brain lysate for controls and injured (treatment) salmon. (A) representative blot of salmon brain samples (4 controls and 4 injured) are shown. Positive and negative controls were rat brain lysate digested with caspase-3 and calpain-2, respectively (right two lanes). (B) A total of n = 8 from each group were used for densitometric analysis of the SBDP120-specific band intensity, achieving statistical significance (**, P<0.02, Student T-test) between control and injured groups.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2637428&req=5

pone-0004491-g004: SBDP120-specific antibody confirming the presence of the SBDP120 fragment in injured salmon brain.Rabbit antibody developed specifically to detect mammalian SBDP120 fragment [19] was used in Western blot analysis of salmon brain lysate for controls and injured (treatment) salmon. (A) representative blot of salmon brain samples (4 controls and 4 injured) are shown. Positive and negative controls were rat brain lysate digested with caspase-3 and calpain-2, respectively (right two lanes). (B) A total of n = 8 from each group were used for densitometric analysis of the SBDP120-specific band intensity, achieving statistical significance (**, P<0.02, Student T-test) between control and injured groups.
Mentions: We further confirm that the SBDP120 observed is identical to the SBDP120 observed in mammalian brain following brain injury by showing that an antibody developed specifically to detect the SBDP120 fragment in mammalian systems [19]. Using a subset of 8 samples per group (which was dictated by availability of brain lysates), the SBDP120 fragment was detected in injured salmon brain lysates (Fig. 4). The results further confirmed that there is a statistically significant two-fold elevation (p<0.02) of caspase-generated SBDP120 in the injured salmon brains (treatment group) when compared to the control brain group (Fig. 4b). As for SBDP110, at the present time, we cannot confirm whether it was generated by endogenous calpain or caspase in salmon brain, since both proteases appear to generate an SBDP of 110 kDa (see Fig. 2) when chemically activated and no SBDP110 fragment-specific antibody tools are available.

Bottom Line: Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk.We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon.To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Sustainability Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America. ann.miracle@pnl.gov

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk. Of specific interest are alphaII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs), which are produced by proteolytic events in traumatic brain injury and have been used as biomarkers to predict the severity of injury in humans and other mammalian brain injury models. This study describes and demonstrates the successful use of antibody-based mammalian SBDP biomarkers to detect head injury in migrating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that have been injured during passage through high-energy hydraulic environments present in spillways under different operational configurations. Mortality and injury assessment techniques currently measure only near-term direct mortality and easily observable acute injury. Injury-based biomarkers may serve as a quantitative indicator of subacute physical injury and recovery, and aid hydropower operators in evaluation of safest passage configuration and operation actions for migrating juvenile salmonids. We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon. To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus