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Spillway-induced salmon head injury triggers the generation of brain alphaII-spectrin breakdown product biomarkers similar to mammalian traumatic brain injury.

Miracle A, Denslow ND, Kroll KJ, Liu MC, Wang KK - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk.We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon.To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Sustainability Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America. ann.miracle@pnl.gov

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk. Of specific interest are alphaII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs), which are produced by proteolytic events in traumatic brain injury and have been used as biomarkers to predict the severity of injury in humans and other mammalian brain injury models. This study describes and demonstrates the successful use of antibody-based mammalian SBDP biomarkers to detect head injury in migrating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that have been injured during passage through high-energy hydraulic environments present in spillways under different operational configurations. Mortality and injury assessment techniques currently measure only near-term direct mortality and easily observable acute injury. Injury-based biomarkers may serve as a quantitative indicator of subacute physical injury and recovery, and aid hydropower operators in evaluation of safest passage configuration and operation actions for migrating juvenile salmonids. We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon. To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

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αII-spectrin proteolysis in salmon brain following spillway force induced brain injury.(A). αII-spectrin (280 kDa) and its fragments SBDP150, SBDP120 and SBDP110 are as indicated. Representative samples are shown. (B). Quantification of SBDP120 and SBDP110 elevation in injured salmon brain vs. controls. A total of n = 10 for normal and n = 20 for injured were quantified. Statistical significance (P<0.01, Student T-test) for both SBDP120 and SBDP110 are indicated with **.
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pone-0004491-g003: αII-spectrin proteolysis in salmon brain following spillway force induced brain injury.(A). αII-spectrin (280 kDa) and its fragments SBDP150, SBDP120 and SBDP110 are as indicated. Representative samples are shown. (B). Quantification of SBDP120 and SBDP110 elevation in injured salmon brain vs. controls. A total of n = 10 for normal and n = 20 for injured were quantified. Statistical significance (P<0.01, Student T-test) for both SBDP120 and SBDP110 are indicated with **.

Mentions: Ten control and twenty passage treatment fish were assessed for expression of SBDPs using biotinylated anti-mammalian αII-spectrin (Fig. 3A). Densitometric analyses of differentially expressed SBDPs found significant differences between the control and passage treated groups with p<0.01 for SBDP120 and p<0.01 for SBDP110 (Fig. 3B). In both cases, the SBDP120 and SBDP110 levels increased about 2-fold after salmon brain injury (Figure 3B). We also note that there is a consistent basal level of SBDPs even in control brain, representing turnover of αII-spectrin in salmon brain tissues.


Spillway-induced salmon head injury triggers the generation of brain alphaII-spectrin breakdown product biomarkers similar to mammalian traumatic brain injury.

Miracle A, Denslow ND, Kroll KJ, Liu MC, Wang KK - PLoS ONE (2009)

αII-spectrin proteolysis in salmon brain following spillway force induced brain injury.(A). αII-spectrin (280 kDa) and its fragments SBDP150, SBDP120 and SBDP110 are as indicated. Representative samples are shown. (B). Quantification of SBDP120 and SBDP110 elevation in injured salmon brain vs. controls. A total of n = 10 for normal and n = 20 for injured were quantified. Statistical significance (P<0.01, Student T-test) for both SBDP120 and SBDP110 are indicated with **.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2637428&req=5

pone-0004491-g003: αII-spectrin proteolysis in salmon brain following spillway force induced brain injury.(A). αII-spectrin (280 kDa) and its fragments SBDP150, SBDP120 and SBDP110 are as indicated. Representative samples are shown. (B). Quantification of SBDP120 and SBDP110 elevation in injured salmon brain vs. controls. A total of n = 10 for normal and n = 20 for injured were quantified. Statistical significance (P<0.01, Student T-test) for both SBDP120 and SBDP110 are indicated with **.
Mentions: Ten control and twenty passage treatment fish were assessed for expression of SBDPs using biotinylated anti-mammalian αII-spectrin (Fig. 3A). Densitometric analyses of differentially expressed SBDPs found significant differences between the control and passage treated groups with p<0.01 for SBDP120 and p<0.01 for SBDP110 (Fig. 3B). In both cases, the SBDP120 and SBDP110 levels increased about 2-fold after salmon brain injury (Figure 3B). We also note that there is a consistent basal level of SBDPs even in control brain, representing turnover of αII-spectrin in salmon brain tissues.

Bottom Line: Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk.We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon.To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Sustainability Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States of America. ann.miracle@pnl.gov

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in biomedical research have resulted in the development of specific biomarkers for diagnostic testing of disease condition or physiological risk. Of specific interest are alphaII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs), which are produced by proteolytic events in traumatic brain injury and have been used as biomarkers to predict the severity of injury in humans and other mammalian brain injury models. This study describes and demonstrates the successful use of antibody-based mammalian SBDP biomarkers to detect head injury in migrating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that have been injured during passage through high-energy hydraulic environments present in spillways under different operational configurations. Mortality and injury assessment techniques currently measure only near-term direct mortality and easily observable acute injury. Injury-based biomarkers may serve as a quantitative indicator of subacute physical injury and recovery, and aid hydropower operators in evaluation of safest passage configuration and operation actions for migrating juvenile salmonids. We describe a novel application of SBDP biomarkers for head injury for migrating salmon. To our knowledge, this is the first documented cross-over use of a human molecular biomarker in a wildlife and operational risk management scenario.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus