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Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts.

Lai JC, Lai MB, Jandhyam S, Dukhande VV, Bhushan A, Daniels CK, Leung SW - Int J Nanomedicine (2008)

Bottom Line: Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts.We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO(2) nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells.Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA.

ABSTRACT
The use of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in various industrial applications (eg, production of paper, plastics, cosmetics, and paints) has been expanding thereby increasing the occupational and other environmental exposure of these nanoparticles to humans and other species. However, the health effects of exposure to TiO(2) nanoparticles have not been systematically assessed even though recent studies suggest that such exposure induces inflammatory responses in lung tissue and cells. Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts. We found that TiO(2) micro- and nanoparticles induced cell death on both human cell types in a concentration-related manner. We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO(2) nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells. The cell death mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO(2) micro- and nanoparticles on U87 cells include apoptosis, necrosis, and possibly apoptosis-like and necrosis-like cell death types. Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.

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Cellular morphology of human astrocytoma (astrocytes-like) U87 cells after exposure to TiO2 microparticles or nanoparticles.Notes: U87 cells were treated with TiO2 microparticles or nanoparticles for 48 hours and then examined with bright field light microscopy at a magnification of 100. The treatments were: A) control (ie, untreated) U87 cells; B) cells treated with 1 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; C) cells treated with 10 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; D) cells treated with 50 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; E) cells treated with 1 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles; F) cells treated with 10 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles; and G) cells treated with 50 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles.Abbreviation: TiO2, titanium dioxide.
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f4-ijn-3-533: Cellular morphology of human astrocytoma (astrocytes-like) U87 cells after exposure to TiO2 microparticles or nanoparticles.Notes: U87 cells were treated with TiO2 microparticles or nanoparticles for 48 hours and then examined with bright field light microscopy at a magnification of 100. The treatments were: A) control (ie, untreated) U87 cells; B) cells treated with 1 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; C) cells treated with 10 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; D) cells treated with 50 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; E) cells treated with 1 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles; F) cells treated with 10 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles; and G) cells treated with 50 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles.Abbreviation: TiO2, titanium dioxide.

Mentions: As noted under bright field microscopy, the control (ie, untreated) U87 cells showed “healthy” morphology with one or more processes extended from their cell bodies (Figure 4A). After treatment with either TiO2 microparticles (Figure 4B) or nanoparticles (Figure 4E) at 1 μg/mL for 48 hours, the nuclei of the treated U87 cells became more prominent while there were fewer processes extended from their cell bodies. At the same time, the TiO2 microparticles and nanoparticles appeared to aggregate and some aggregated on or around the U87 cells (Figures 4B and 4E). After U87 cells had been treated with 10 and 50 μg/mL of TiO2 microparticles (Figures 4C and 4D) or nanoparticles (Figures 4F and 4G), few intact cells were observed although some particle aggregates were noted to be around or on cells. Both micro- and nanoparticles appeared to form both small and larger aggregates, the number of which appeared to increase as the particle concentration was increased (Figures 4C, 4D, 4F, and 4G). Thus, the bright field microscopy data are consistent with cell survival data (Figure 1), suggesting that when U87 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of TiO2- microparticles or nanoparticles, there was a progressive decrease in the number of live U87 cells.


Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts.

Lai JC, Lai MB, Jandhyam S, Dukhande VV, Bhushan A, Daniels CK, Leung SW - Int J Nanomedicine (2008)

Cellular morphology of human astrocytoma (astrocytes-like) U87 cells after exposure to TiO2 microparticles or nanoparticles.Notes: U87 cells were treated with TiO2 microparticles or nanoparticles for 48 hours and then examined with bright field light microscopy at a magnification of 100. The treatments were: A) control (ie, untreated) U87 cells; B) cells treated with 1 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; C) cells treated with 10 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; D) cells treated with 50 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; E) cells treated with 1 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles; F) cells treated with 10 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles; and G) cells treated with 50 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles.Abbreviation: TiO2, titanium dioxide.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2636591&req=5

f4-ijn-3-533: Cellular morphology of human astrocytoma (astrocytes-like) U87 cells after exposure to TiO2 microparticles or nanoparticles.Notes: U87 cells were treated with TiO2 microparticles or nanoparticles for 48 hours and then examined with bright field light microscopy at a magnification of 100. The treatments were: A) control (ie, untreated) U87 cells; B) cells treated with 1 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; C) cells treated with 10 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; D) cells treated with 50 μg/mL TiO2 microparticles; E) cells treated with 1 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles; F) cells treated with 10 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles; and G) cells treated with 50 μg/mL TiO2 nanoparticles.Abbreviation: TiO2, titanium dioxide.
Mentions: As noted under bright field microscopy, the control (ie, untreated) U87 cells showed “healthy” morphology with one or more processes extended from their cell bodies (Figure 4A). After treatment with either TiO2 microparticles (Figure 4B) or nanoparticles (Figure 4E) at 1 μg/mL for 48 hours, the nuclei of the treated U87 cells became more prominent while there were fewer processes extended from their cell bodies. At the same time, the TiO2 microparticles and nanoparticles appeared to aggregate and some aggregated on or around the U87 cells (Figures 4B and 4E). After U87 cells had been treated with 10 and 50 μg/mL of TiO2 microparticles (Figures 4C and 4D) or nanoparticles (Figures 4F and 4G), few intact cells were observed although some particle aggregates were noted to be around or on cells. Both micro- and nanoparticles appeared to form both small and larger aggregates, the number of which appeared to increase as the particle concentration was increased (Figures 4C, 4D, 4F, and 4G). Thus, the bright field microscopy data are consistent with cell survival data (Figure 1), suggesting that when U87 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of TiO2- microparticles or nanoparticles, there was a progressive decrease in the number of live U87 cells.

Bottom Line: Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts.We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO(2) nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells.Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA.

ABSTRACT
The use of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in various industrial applications (eg, production of paper, plastics, cosmetics, and paints) has been expanding thereby increasing the occupational and other environmental exposure of these nanoparticles to humans and other species. However, the health effects of exposure to TiO(2) nanoparticles have not been systematically assessed even though recent studies suggest that such exposure induces inflammatory responses in lung tissue and cells. Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts. We found that TiO(2) micro- and nanoparticles induced cell death on both human cell types in a concentration-related manner. We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO(2) nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells. The cell death mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO(2) micro- and nanoparticles on U87 cells include apoptosis, necrosis, and possibly apoptosis-like and necrosis-like cell death types. Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus