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Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts.

Lai JC, Lai MB, Jandhyam S, Dukhande VV, Bhushan A, Daniels CK, Leung SW - Int J Nanomedicine (2008)

Bottom Line: Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts.We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO(2) nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells.Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA.

ABSTRACT
The use of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in various industrial applications (eg, production of paper, plastics, cosmetics, and paints) has been expanding thereby increasing the occupational and other environmental exposure of these nanoparticles to humans and other species. However, the health effects of exposure to TiO(2) nanoparticles have not been systematically assessed even though recent studies suggest that such exposure induces inflammatory responses in lung tissue and cells. Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts. We found that TiO(2) micro- and nanoparticles induced cell death on both human cell types in a concentration-related manner. We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO(2) nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells. The cell death mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO(2) micro- and nanoparticles on U87 cells include apoptosis, necrosis, and possibly apoptosis-like and necrosis-like cell death types. Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.

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Effects of TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles on survival of human fibroblasts (HFF-1).Notes: Values are mean ± SEM of 6–9 determinations. HFF-1 cells treated with TiO2 microparticles are marked with open squares and those treated with TiO2 nanoparticles are marked with open circles. Values marked with a and b are significantly different (p < 0.05, by ANOVA and post-hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test) from corresponding mean value in control (ie, untreated) cells.Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; SEM, standard error of mean; TiO2, titanium dioxide.
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f3-ijn-3-533: Effects of TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles on survival of human fibroblasts (HFF-1).Notes: Values are mean ± SEM of 6–9 determinations. HFF-1 cells treated with TiO2 microparticles are marked with open squares and those treated with TiO2 nanoparticles are marked with open circles. Values marked with a and b are significantly different (p < 0.05, by ANOVA and post-hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test) from corresponding mean value in control (ie, untreated) cells.Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; SEM, standard error of mean; TiO2, titanium dioxide.

Mentions: To determine if the effects of TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles on neural cells were similar to their effects on nonneural cells, we also examined the effects of these metallic oxide micro- and nanoparticles on normal human fibroblasts (HFF-1 cells). Exposure of HFF-1 cells for 48 hours to both TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles induced significant decreases in cell survival at concentrations higher than 1 μg/mL (Figure 3). At concentrations between 1 and 10 μg/mL, TiO2 nanoparticles were more potent in lowering the survival of these cells whereas when the concentrations were increased beyond 10 μg/mL, both the micro- and the nanoparticles were equally effective in lowering the survival of the HFF-1 cells, except at the highest level employed (ie, 100 μg/mL), where again the nanoparticles were more effective than the microparticles in lowing the survival of these cells (Figure 3). When these cells were treated with TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles at 100 μg/mL for 48 hours, their survival decreased to less than 40% and 30%, respectively, of that of untreated (ie, control) HFF-1 cells (Figure 3). Nevertheless, irrespective of their sizes, the IC50 values for both TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles in lowering the survival of HFF-1 cells were about the same: they were ∼40 μg/mL (Figure 3).


Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts.

Lai JC, Lai MB, Jandhyam S, Dukhande VV, Bhushan A, Daniels CK, Leung SW - Int J Nanomedicine (2008)

Effects of TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles on survival of human fibroblasts (HFF-1).Notes: Values are mean ± SEM of 6–9 determinations. HFF-1 cells treated with TiO2 microparticles are marked with open squares and those treated with TiO2 nanoparticles are marked with open circles. Values marked with a and b are significantly different (p < 0.05, by ANOVA and post-hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test) from corresponding mean value in control (ie, untreated) cells.Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; SEM, standard error of mean; TiO2, titanium dioxide.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2636591&req=5

f3-ijn-3-533: Effects of TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles on survival of human fibroblasts (HFF-1).Notes: Values are mean ± SEM of 6–9 determinations. HFF-1 cells treated with TiO2 microparticles are marked with open squares and those treated with TiO2 nanoparticles are marked with open circles. Values marked with a and b are significantly different (p < 0.05, by ANOVA and post-hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test) from corresponding mean value in control (ie, untreated) cells.Abbreviations: ANOVA, analysis of variance; SEM, standard error of mean; TiO2, titanium dioxide.
Mentions: To determine if the effects of TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles on neural cells were similar to their effects on nonneural cells, we also examined the effects of these metallic oxide micro- and nanoparticles on normal human fibroblasts (HFF-1 cells). Exposure of HFF-1 cells for 48 hours to both TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles induced significant decreases in cell survival at concentrations higher than 1 μg/mL (Figure 3). At concentrations between 1 and 10 μg/mL, TiO2 nanoparticles were more potent in lowering the survival of these cells whereas when the concentrations were increased beyond 10 μg/mL, both the micro- and the nanoparticles were equally effective in lowering the survival of the HFF-1 cells, except at the highest level employed (ie, 100 μg/mL), where again the nanoparticles were more effective than the microparticles in lowing the survival of these cells (Figure 3). When these cells were treated with TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles at 100 μg/mL for 48 hours, their survival decreased to less than 40% and 30%, respectively, of that of untreated (ie, control) HFF-1 cells (Figure 3). Nevertheless, irrespective of their sizes, the IC50 values for both TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles in lowering the survival of HFF-1 cells were about the same: they were ∼40 μg/mL (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts.We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO(2) nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells.Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA.

ABSTRACT
The use of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in various industrial applications (eg, production of paper, plastics, cosmetics, and paints) has been expanding thereby increasing the occupational and other environmental exposure of these nanoparticles to humans and other species. However, the health effects of exposure to TiO(2) nanoparticles have not been systematically assessed even though recent studies suggest that such exposure induces inflammatory responses in lung tissue and cells. Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts. We found that TiO(2) micro- and nanoparticles induced cell death on both human cell types in a concentration-related manner. We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO(2) nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells. The cell death mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO(2) micro- and nanoparticles on U87 cells include apoptosis, necrosis, and possibly apoptosis-like and necrosis-like cell death types. Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus