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Greater osteoblast proliferation on anodized nanotubular titanium upon electrical stimulation.

Ercan B, Webster TJ - Int J Nanomedicine (2008)

Bottom Line: Currently used orthopedic implants composed of titanium have a limited functional lifetime of only 10-15 years.One of the reasons for this persistent problem is the poor prolonged ability of titanium to remain bonded to juxtaposed bone.It has been proposed to modify titanium through anodization to create a novel nanotubular topography in order to improve cytocompatibility properties necessary for the prolonged attachment of orthopedic implants to surrounding bone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

ABSTRACT
Currently used orthopedic implants composed of titanium have a limited functional lifetime of only 10-15 years. One of the reasons for this persistent problem is the poor prolonged ability of titanium to remain bonded to juxtaposed bone. It has been proposed to modify titanium through anodization to create a novel nanotubular topography in order to improve cytocompatibility properties necessary for the prolonged attachment of orthopedic implants to surrounding bone. Additionally, electrical stimulation has been used in orthopedics to heal bone non-unions and fractures in anatomically difficult to operate sites (such as the spine). In this study, these two approaches were combined as the efficacy of electrical stimulation to promote osteoblast (bone forming cell) density on anodized titanium was investigated. To do this, osteoblast proliferation experiments lasting up to 5 days were conducted as cells were stimulated with constant bipolar pulses at a frequency of 20 Hz and a pulse duration of 0.4 ms each day for 1 hour. The stimulation voltages were 1 V, 5 V, 10 V, and 15 V. Results showed for the first time that under electrical stimulation, osteoblast proliferation on anodized titanium was enhanced at lower voltages compared to what was observed on conventional (nonanodized) titanium. In addition, compared to nonstimulated conventional titanium, osteoblast proliferation was enhanced 72% after 5 days of culture on anodized nanotubular titanium at 15 V of electrical stimulation. Thus, results of this study suggest that coupling the positive influences of electrical stimulation and nanotubular features on anodized titanium may improve osteoblast responses necessary for enhanced orthopedic implant efficacy.

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Osteoblast densities after 1 day on the nonstimulated as well as 1 V, 5 V, 10 V, and 15 V electrically stimulated conventional and anodized nanotubular titanium.Notes: Values are mean ± SEM; n = 3; *p < 0.05 compared to Anod_Non; +p < 0.05 compared to Conv_Non.Abbreviations: Anod, anodized nanotubular titanium; Conv, conventional (nonanodized titanium); Non, nonelectrical stimulated.
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f4-ijn-3-477: Osteoblast densities after 1 day on the nonstimulated as well as 1 V, 5 V, 10 V, and 15 V electrically stimulated conventional and anodized nanotubular titanium.Notes: Values are mean ± SEM; n = 3; *p < 0.05 compared to Anod_Non; +p < 0.05 compared to Conv_Non.Abbreviations: Anod, anodized nanotubular titanium; Conv, conventional (nonanodized titanium); Non, nonelectrical stimulated.

Mentions: After 1 day of culture, results of the present study confirmed those of other studies that have been completed without electrical stimulation. Specifically, without electrical stimulation, more osteoblasts were counted on anodized nanotubular compared to unanodized titanium after 1 day (Figure 4). Yao and colleagues (2005) first reported higher osteoblast density on anodized nanotubular compared to unanodized titanium after a 4-h adhesion test. Yao and colleagues (2005) continued to report significantly greater alkaline phosphate activity and calcium deposition by osteoblasts cultured on anodized nanotubular compared to unanodized titanium for up to 21 days.


Greater osteoblast proliferation on anodized nanotubular titanium upon electrical stimulation.

Ercan B, Webster TJ - Int J Nanomedicine (2008)

Osteoblast densities after 1 day on the nonstimulated as well as 1 V, 5 V, 10 V, and 15 V electrically stimulated conventional and anodized nanotubular titanium.Notes: Values are mean ± SEM; n = 3; *p < 0.05 compared to Anod_Non; +p < 0.05 compared to Conv_Non.Abbreviations: Anod, anodized nanotubular titanium; Conv, conventional (nonanodized titanium); Non, nonelectrical stimulated.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2636582&req=5

f4-ijn-3-477: Osteoblast densities after 1 day on the nonstimulated as well as 1 V, 5 V, 10 V, and 15 V electrically stimulated conventional and anodized nanotubular titanium.Notes: Values are mean ± SEM; n = 3; *p < 0.05 compared to Anod_Non; +p < 0.05 compared to Conv_Non.Abbreviations: Anod, anodized nanotubular titanium; Conv, conventional (nonanodized titanium); Non, nonelectrical stimulated.
Mentions: After 1 day of culture, results of the present study confirmed those of other studies that have been completed without electrical stimulation. Specifically, without electrical stimulation, more osteoblasts were counted on anodized nanotubular compared to unanodized titanium after 1 day (Figure 4). Yao and colleagues (2005) first reported higher osteoblast density on anodized nanotubular compared to unanodized titanium after a 4-h adhesion test. Yao and colleagues (2005) continued to report significantly greater alkaline phosphate activity and calcium deposition by osteoblasts cultured on anodized nanotubular compared to unanodized titanium for up to 21 days.

Bottom Line: Currently used orthopedic implants composed of titanium have a limited functional lifetime of only 10-15 years.One of the reasons for this persistent problem is the poor prolonged ability of titanium to remain bonded to juxtaposed bone.It has been proposed to modify titanium through anodization to create a novel nanotubular topography in order to improve cytocompatibility properties necessary for the prolonged attachment of orthopedic implants to surrounding bone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.

ABSTRACT
Currently used orthopedic implants composed of titanium have a limited functional lifetime of only 10-15 years. One of the reasons for this persistent problem is the poor prolonged ability of titanium to remain bonded to juxtaposed bone. It has been proposed to modify titanium through anodization to create a novel nanotubular topography in order to improve cytocompatibility properties necessary for the prolonged attachment of orthopedic implants to surrounding bone. Additionally, electrical stimulation has been used in orthopedics to heal bone non-unions and fractures in anatomically difficult to operate sites (such as the spine). In this study, these two approaches were combined as the efficacy of electrical stimulation to promote osteoblast (bone forming cell) density on anodized titanium was investigated. To do this, osteoblast proliferation experiments lasting up to 5 days were conducted as cells were stimulated with constant bipolar pulses at a frequency of 20 Hz and a pulse duration of 0.4 ms each day for 1 hour. The stimulation voltages were 1 V, 5 V, 10 V, and 15 V. Results showed for the first time that under electrical stimulation, osteoblast proliferation on anodized titanium was enhanced at lower voltages compared to what was observed on conventional (nonanodized) titanium. In addition, compared to nonstimulated conventional titanium, osteoblast proliferation was enhanced 72% after 5 days of culture on anodized nanotubular titanium at 15 V of electrical stimulation. Thus, results of this study suggest that coupling the positive influences of electrical stimulation and nanotubular features on anodized titanium may improve osteoblast responses necessary for enhanced orthopedic implant efficacy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus