Limits...
Antimicrobial drug use and resistance in Europe.

van de Sande-Bruinsma N, Grundmann H, Verloo D, Tiemersma E, Monen J, Goossens H, Ferech M, European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System GroupEuropean Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Project Gro - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: The data obtained from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption and the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System suggest that variation of consumption coincides with the occurrence of resistance at the country level.Linear regression analysis showed that the association between antimicrobial drug use and resistance was specific and robust for 2 of 3 compound pathogen combinations, stable over time, but not sensitive enough to explain all of the observed variations.Ecologic studies based on routine surveillance data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption at a national level in Europe.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Our study confronts the use of antimicrobial agents in ambulatory care with the resistance trends of 2 major pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, in 21 European countries in 2000-2005 and explores whether the notion that antimicrobial drug use determines resistance can be supported by surveillance data at national aggregation levels. The data obtained from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption and the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System suggest that variation of consumption coincides with the occurrence of resistance at the country level. Linear regression analysis showed that the association between antimicrobial drug use and resistance was specific and robust for 2 of 3 compound pathogen combinations, stable over time, but not sensitive enough to explain all of the observed variations. Ecologic studies based on routine surveillance data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption at a national level in Europe.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Total antimicrobial drug consumption in ambulatory care in defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) by antimicrobial class in 21 European countries in 2004. See Table 1 footnote for country designations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2630720&req=5

Figure 1: Total antimicrobial drug consumption in ambulatory care in defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) by antimicrobial class in 21 European countries in 2004. See Table 1 footnote for country designations.

Mentions: We included in the study 21 European countries, which provided data on the use of antimicrobial agents in ambulatory care to the ESAC database for the period 2000–2004 (including the 15 long-standing European Union (EU) member states). These also included 3 of the 10 nations that joined the EU in May 2004, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Slovenia; 2 applicant countries, Bulgaria and Croatia; and 1 European Free Trade Association country, Iceland. Total outpatient antimicrobial drug use differed significantly between countries. Use tends to be low in northern, moderate in central, and high in southern Europe and varied by a factor of 3.4 between Greece (33.4 DID) and the Netherlands (9.7 DID) in 2004 (Figure 1, Table 1).


Antimicrobial drug use and resistance in Europe.

van de Sande-Bruinsma N, Grundmann H, Verloo D, Tiemersma E, Monen J, Goossens H, Ferech M, European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System GroupEuropean Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Project Gro - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Total antimicrobial drug consumption in ambulatory care in defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) by antimicrobial class in 21 European countries in 2004. See Table 1 footnote for country designations.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2630720&req=5

Figure 1: Total antimicrobial drug consumption in ambulatory care in defined daily dose per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) by antimicrobial class in 21 European countries in 2004. See Table 1 footnote for country designations.
Mentions: We included in the study 21 European countries, which provided data on the use of antimicrobial agents in ambulatory care to the ESAC database for the period 2000–2004 (including the 15 long-standing European Union (EU) member states). These also included 3 of the 10 nations that joined the EU in May 2004, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Slovenia; 2 applicant countries, Bulgaria and Croatia; and 1 European Free Trade Association country, Iceland. Total outpatient antimicrobial drug use differed significantly between countries. Use tends to be low in northern, moderate in central, and high in southern Europe and varied by a factor of 3.4 between Greece (33.4 DID) and the Netherlands (9.7 DID) in 2004 (Figure 1, Table 1).

Bottom Line: The data obtained from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption and the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System suggest that variation of consumption coincides with the occurrence of resistance at the country level.Linear regression analysis showed that the association between antimicrobial drug use and resistance was specific and robust for 2 of 3 compound pathogen combinations, stable over time, but not sensitive enough to explain all of the observed variations.Ecologic studies based on routine surveillance data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption at a national level in Europe.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Our study confronts the use of antimicrobial agents in ambulatory care with the resistance trends of 2 major pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, in 21 European countries in 2000-2005 and explores whether the notion that antimicrobial drug use determines resistance can be supported by surveillance data at national aggregation levels. The data obtained from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption and the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System suggest that variation of consumption coincides with the occurrence of resistance at the country level. Linear regression analysis showed that the association between antimicrobial drug use and resistance was specific and robust for 2 of 3 compound pathogen combinations, stable over time, but not sensitive enough to explain all of the observed variations. Ecologic studies based on routine surveillance data indicate a relation between use and resistance and support interventions designed to reduce antimicrobial drug consumption at a national level in Europe.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus