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Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in humans and food animals.

Jhung MA, Thompson AD, Killgore GE, Zukowski WE, Songer G, Warny M, Johnson S, Gerding DN, McDonald LC, Limbago BM - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: Toxinotype V strains have been rare causes of human C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).Six (46.2%) of 13 case-patients for whom information was available had community-associated CDAD.Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

ABSTRACT
Clostridium difficile is a recognized pathogen in neonatal pigs and may contribute to enteritis in calves. Toxinotype V strains have been rare causes of human C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). We examined toxinotype V in human disease, the genetic relationship of animal and human toxinotype V strains, and in vitro toxin production of these strains. From 2001 through 2006, 8 (1.3%) of 620 patient isolates were identified as toxinotype V; before 2001, 7 (<0.02%) of approximately 6,000 isolates were identified as toxinotype V. Six (46.2%) of 13 case-patients for whom information was available had community-associated CDAD. Molecular characterization showed a high degree of similarity between human and animal toxinotype V isolates; all contained a 39-bp tcdC deletion and most produced binary toxin. Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans.

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In vitro toxin production of toxinotype V Clostridium difficile isolates compared with epidemic toxinotype III and nonepidemic toxinotype 0 strains. Toxin A and Toxin B concentrations in micrograms per milliliter at 24, 48, and 72 h are shown for 25 toxinotype 0 isolates, 21 toxinotype V isolates (7 human; 14 animal), and 15 toxinotype III isolates. Horizontal lines indicate median values for each group and the p values are shown for comparison of the median toxin levels of toxinotype V isolates with toxinotype 0 and toxinotype III isolates.
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Figure 2: In vitro toxin production of toxinotype V Clostridium difficile isolates compared with epidemic toxinotype III and nonepidemic toxinotype 0 strains. Toxin A and Toxin B concentrations in micrograms per milliliter at 24, 48, and 72 h are shown for 25 toxinotype 0 isolates, 21 toxinotype V isolates (7 human; 14 animal), and 15 toxinotype III isolates. Horizontal lines indicate median values for each group and the p values are shown for comparison of the median toxin levels of toxinotype V isolates with toxinotype 0 and toxinotype III isolates.

Mentions: Median toxin A and B production in the 21 toxinotype V isolates analyzed (7 bovine, 7 porcine, 7 of 8 recent human) was greater than that by nonepidemic toxinotype 0 isolates but less than that by epidemic toxinotype III isolates at all time points measured (Figure 2). The mean absorbance measurements at 600 nm, representing cell density, were measured at 24 h and 48 h and were not significantly different for toxinotype V isolates (1.56 and 1.06, respectively) than for toxinotype 0 isolates (1.77 and 1.39) or toxinotype III isolates (2.07 and 1.64).


Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in humans and food animals.

Jhung MA, Thompson AD, Killgore GE, Zukowski WE, Songer G, Warny M, Johnson S, Gerding DN, McDonald LC, Limbago BM - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

In vitro toxin production of toxinotype V Clostridium difficile isolates compared with epidemic toxinotype III and nonepidemic toxinotype 0 strains. Toxin A and Toxin B concentrations in micrograms per milliliter at 24, 48, and 72 h are shown for 25 toxinotype 0 isolates, 21 toxinotype V isolates (7 human; 14 animal), and 15 toxinotype III isolates. Horizontal lines indicate median values for each group and the p values are shown for comparison of the median toxin levels of toxinotype V isolates with toxinotype 0 and toxinotype III isolates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2630049&req=5

Figure 2: In vitro toxin production of toxinotype V Clostridium difficile isolates compared with epidemic toxinotype III and nonepidemic toxinotype 0 strains. Toxin A and Toxin B concentrations in micrograms per milliliter at 24, 48, and 72 h are shown for 25 toxinotype 0 isolates, 21 toxinotype V isolates (7 human; 14 animal), and 15 toxinotype III isolates. Horizontal lines indicate median values for each group and the p values are shown for comparison of the median toxin levels of toxinotype V isolates with toxinotype 0 and toxinotype III isolates.
Mentions: Median toxin A and B production in the 21 toxinotype V isolates analyzed (7 bovine, 7 porcine, 7 of 8 recent human) was greater than that by nonepidemic toxinotype 0 isolates but less than that by epidemic toxinotype III isolates at all time points measured (Figure 2). The mean absorbance measurements at 600 nm, representing cell density, were measured at 24 h and 48 h and were not significantly different for toxinotype V isolates (1.56 and 1.06, respectively) than for toxinotype 0 isolates (1.77 and 1.39) or toxinotype III isolates (2.07 and 1.64).

Bottom Line: Toxinotype V strains have been rare causes of human C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).Six (46.2%) of 13 case-patients for whom information was available had community-associated CDAD.Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

ABSTRACT
Clostridium difficile is a recognized pathogen in neonatal pigs and may contribute to enteritis in calves. Toxinotype V strains have been rare causes of human C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). We examined toxinotype V in human disease, the genetic relationship of animal and human toxinotype V strains, and in vitro toxin production of these strains. From 2001 through 2006, 8 (1.3%) of 620 patient isolates were identified as toxinotype V; before 2001, 7 (<0.02%) of approximately 6,000 isolates were identified as toxinotype V. Six (46.2%) of 13 case-patients for whom information was available had community-associated CDAD. Molecular characterization showed a high degree of similarity between human and animal toxinotype V isolates; all contained a 39-bp tcdC deletion and most produced binary toxin. Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus