Limits...
Microarray analysis identifies candidate genes for key roles in coral development.

Grasso LC, Maindonald J, Rudd S, Hayward DC, Saint R, Miller DJ, Ball EE - BMC Genomics (2008)

Bottom Line: Of 5081 unique peptide coding genes, 1084 were differentially expressed (P <or= 0.05) in comparisons between four different stages of coral development, spanning key developmental transitions.One surprising finding is that some of these genes have clear counterparts in higher animals but are not present in the closely-related sea anemone Nematostella.Secondly, coral-specific processes (i.e. traits which distinguish corals from their close relatives) may be analogous to similar processes in distantly related organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. lauretta.grasso@anu.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Anthozoan cnidarians are amongst the simplest animals at the tissue level of organization, but are surprisingly complex and vertebrate-like in terms of gene repertoire. As major components of tropical reef ecosystems, the stony corals are anthozoans of particular ecological significance. To better understand the molecular bases of both cnidarian development in general and coral-specific processes such as skeletogenesis and symbiont acquisition, microarray analysis was carried out through the period of early development - when skeletogenesis is initiated, and symbionts are first acquired.

Results: Of 5081 unique peptide coding genes, 1084 were differentially expressed (P

Conclusion: This study is the first large-scale investigation of developmental gene expression for any cnidarian, and has provided candidate genes for key roles in many aspects of coral biology, including calcification, metamorphosis and symbiont uptake. One surprising finding is that some of these genes have clear counterparts in higher animals but are not present in the closely-related sea anemone Nematostella. Secondly, coral-specific processes (i.e. traits which distinguish corals from their close relatives) may be analogous to similar processes in distantly related organisms. This first large-scale application of microarray analysis demonstrates the potential of this approach for investigating many aspects of coral biology, including the effects of stress and disease.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Whole mount in situ hybridization of two carbonic anhydrases and two genes of unknown function which may be involved in calcification. Localisation of transcripts (dark purple) of carbonic anhydrases (A) C007-E7 and (B) A030-E11 and genes of unknown function (C) C012-D9 and (D) B036-D5 are shown in (1) metamorphosing larvae and (2-4) postsettlement polyps of three different ages (2 is youngest, 4 is oldest). C007-E7, C012-D9 and B036-D5 have expression patterns consistent with involvement in early calcification as they are expressed in the aboral end of metamorphosing larvae (A1, C1, D1) and the basal disc of early postsettlement polyps (A2, C2, D2), whilst A020-E11 (B) has an expression pattern consistent with a role in later calcification, as it is expressed in the septa (B4) of the oldest polyp, where the formation of calcified adult structures occurs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2629781&req=5

Figure 5: Whole mount in situ hybridization of two carbonic anhydrases and two genes of unknown function which may be involved in calcification. Localisation of transcripts (dark purple) of carbonic anhydrases (A) C007-E7 and (B) A030-E11 and genes of unknown function (C) C012-D9 and (D) B036-D5 are shown in (1) metamorphosing larvae and (2-4) postsettlement polyps of three different ages (2 is youngest, 4 is oldest). C007-E7, C012-D9 and B036-D5 have expression patterns consistent with involvement in early calcification as they are expressed in the aboral end of metamorphosing larvae (A1, C1, D1) and the basal disc of early postsettlement polyps (A2, C2, D2), whilst A020-E11 (B) has an expression pattern consistent with a role in later calcification, as it is expressed in the septa (B4) of the oldest polyp, where the formation of calcified adult structures occurs.

Mentions: Two carbonic anhydrase genes, C007-E7 and A030-E11 (cluster III) are up-regulated in the planula larva and post-settlement stages, and in situ hybridization shows that the expression of each gene is spatially restricted at those stages of development. C007-E7 is expressed most strongly in a restricted area at the aboral end of the metamorphosing larva and primary polyp (Figure 5A1, A2). The expression of this gene in a disc at the aboral end is consistent with a role in calcification as this is the site where the process is initiated [34,42-44]. In the slightly older polyp the expression in the aboral disc decreases to a circumferential ring (Figure 5A3), and still later (Figure 5A4), this ring is maintained, and expression commences in the tentacles. This expression pattern in the basal plate is consistent with involvement of carbonic anhydrase C007-E7 in the onset of calcification, but indicates that this carbonic anhydrase is not involved in the phase of calcification during which the adult structures are formed.


Microarray analysis identifies candidate genes for key roles in coral development.

Grasso LC, Maindonald J, Rudd S, Hayward DC, Saint R, Miller DJ, Ball EE - BMC Genomics (2008)

Whole mount in situ hybridization of two carbonic anhydrases and two genes of unknown function which may be involved in calcification. Localisation of transcripts (dark purple) of carbonic anhydrases (A) C007-E7 and (B) A030-E11 and genes of unknown function (C) C012-D9 and (D) B036-D5 are shown in (1) metamorphosing larvae and (2-4) postsettlement polyps of three different ages (2 is youngest, 4 is oldest). C007-E7, C012-D9 and B036-D5 have expression patterns consistent with involvement in early calcification as they are expressed in the aboral end of metamorphosing larvae (A1, C1, D1) and the basal disc of early postsettlement polyps (A2, C2, D2), whilst A020-E11 (B) has an expression pattern consistent with a role in later calcification, as it is expressed in the septa (B4) of the oldest polyp, where the formation of calcified adult structures occurs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2629781&req=5

Figure 5: Whole mount in situ hybridization of two carbonic anhydrases and two genes of unknown function which may be involved in calcification. Localisation of transcripts (dark purple) of carbonic anhydrases (A) C007-E7 and (B) A030-E11 and genes of unknown function (C) C012-D9 and (D) B036-D5 are shown in (1) metamorphosing larvae and (2-4) postsettlement polyps of three different ages (2 is youngest, 4 is oldest). C007-E7, C012-D9 and B036-D5 have expression patterns consistent with involvement in early calcification as they are expressed in the aboral end of metamorphosing larvae (A1, C1, D1) and the basal disc of early postsettlement polyps (A2, C2, D2), whilst A020-E11 (B) has an expression pattern consistent with a role in later calcification, as it is expressed in the septa (B4) of the oldest polyp, where the formation of calcified adult structures occurs.
Mentions: Two carbonic anhydrase genes, C007-E7 and A030-E11 (cluster III) are up-regulated in the planula larva and post-settlement stages, and in situ hybridization shows that the expression of each gene is spatially restricted at those stages of development. C007-E7 is expressed most strongly in a restricted area at the aboral end of the metamorphosing larva and primary polyp (Figure 5A1, A2). The expression of this gene in a disc at the aboral end is consistent with a role in calcification as this is the site where the process is initiated [34,42-44]. In the slightly older polyp the expression in the aboral disc decreases to a circumferential ring (Figure 5A3), and still later (Figure 5A4), this ring is maintained, and expression commences in the tentacles. This expression pattern in the basal plate is consistent with involvement of carbonic anhydrase C007-E7 in the onset of calcification, but indicates that this carbonic anhydrase is not involved in the phase of calcification during which the adult structures are formed.

Bottom Line: Of 5081 unique peptide coding genes, 1084 were differentially expressed (P <or= 0.05) in comparisons between four different stages of coral development, spanning key developmental transitions.One surprising finding is that some of these genes have clear counterparts in higher animals but are not present in the closely-related sea anemone Nematostella.Secondly, coral-specific processes (i.e. traits which distinguish corals from their close relatives) may be analogous to similar processes in distantly related organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. lauretta.grasso@anu.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Anthozoan cnidarians are amongst the simplest animals at the tissue level of organization, but are surprisingly complex and vertebrate-like in terms of gene repertoire. As major components of tropical reef ecosystems, the stony corals are anthozoans of particular ecological significance. To better understand the molecular bases of both cnidarian development in general and coral-specific processes such as skeletogenesis and symbiont acquisition, microarray analysis was carried out through the period of early development - when skeletogenesis is initiated, and symbionts are first acquired.

Results: Of 5081 unique peptide coding genes, 1084 were differentially expressed (P

Conclusion: This study is the first large-scale investigation of developmental gene expression for any cnidarian, and has provided candidate genes for key roles in many aspects of coral biology, including calcification, metamorphosis and symbiont uptake. One surprising finding is that some of these genes have clear counterparts in higher animals but are not present in the closely-related sea anemone Nematostella. Secondly, coral-specific processes (i.e. traits which distinguish corals from their close relatives) may be analogous to similar processes in distantly related organisms. This first large-scale application of microarray analysis demonstrates the potential of this approach for investigating many aspects of coral biology, including the effects of stress and disease.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus