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Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation.

Park SH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Lim JS, Kim KW - Korean J Radiol (2007 Jul-Aug)

Bottom Line: The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test.The diagnostic accuracy according to the size criteria from 2 cm to 6 cm was also compared.The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchondong, Seodaemungu, Seoul 120-752, Korea. kimnex@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma.

Materials and methods: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined. The CT images were obtained at a slice thickness of 2 mm to 3 mm. The mAs were varied from 100 to 160 and 200 to 280, while the 120 KVp was maintained in all cases. The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy at thresholds of 10 HU, 20 HU, and 25 HU were compared. The diagnostic accuracy according to the size criteria from 2 cm to 6 cm was also compared.

Results: The twenty-five adenomas showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) attenuation values (mean+/-SD; 16.3+/-14.9) than the nonadenomas (38.1+/-6.8). Nineteen (90%) of the 20 nonadenomas had attenuation values ranging from 30 to 50 HU. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 36%, 100%, 100%, 56%, and 64%, respectively, at a threshold of 10 HU; 60%, 100%, 100%, 67%, and 78%, respectively, at a threshold of 20 HU; and 72%, 95%, 95%, 73%, and 82%, respectively, at a threshold of 25 HU. The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm). The size criteria using a diameter of 4-6 cm showed a sensitivity > 90% but a specificity < 70%. Size criteria of 2 or 3 cm had a high specificity of 100% and 80% but a low sensitivity of 20% and 60%.

Conclusion: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma. The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.

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Example of a typical adrenal adenoma in the noncontrast image. A 1.6 × 1.2 cm, well-defined, low attenuated nodule (arrow) is shown in the left adrenal gland with a HU value of -13.6. This nodule was confirmed to be an adrenal adenoma by a pathological examination.
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Figure 4: Example of a typical adrenal adenoma in the noncontrast image. A 1.6 × 1.2 cm, well-defined, low attenuated nodule (arrow) is shown in the left adrenal gland with a HU value of -13.6. This nodule was confirmed to be an adrenal adenoma by a pathological examination.

Mentions: The mean diameter of the adrenal adenomas was 2.4 ± 1.2 cm ranging from 1.0 cm to 6.3 cm. The mean diameter of the nonadenomas was 5.1 ± 2.4 cm, ranging from 1.0 cm to 9.8 cm. Figure 2 shows a scattergram of the adenomas and nonadenomas according to their size. There were statistically significant differences between the diameter of the adenomas and nonadenomas (p = 0.015). One adrenal metastasis measured 1 cm in the largest diameter, and there were three malignant adrenal masses < 3 cm in the largest diameter. Fourteen (70%) nonadenomas measured < 6 cm in the largest diameter, and all were malignant. Table 2 shows the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy at each tumor diameter. In ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve for CT attenuation values (0.904 ± 0.044) was larger than that for size (0.860 ± 0.060) (Fig. 3), which indicates the unenhanced attenuation value is more useful in distinguishing between adenomas and nonadenomas than the mass size (Figs. 4-6).


Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation.

Park SH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Lim JS, Kim KW - Korean J Radiol (2007 Jul-Aug)

Example of a typical adrenal adenoma in the noncontrast image. A 1.6 × 1.2 cm, well-defined, low attenuated nodule (arrow) is shown in the left adrenal gland with a HU value of -13.6. This nodule was confirmed to be an adrenal adenoma by a pathological examination.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2627166&req=5

Figure 4: Example of a typical adrenal adenoma in the noncontrast image. A 1.6 × 1.2 cm, well-defined, low attenuated nodule (arrow) is shown in the left adrenal gland with a HU value of -13.6. This nodule was confirmed to be an adrenal adenoma by a pathological examination.
Mentions: The mean diameter of the adrenal adenomas was 2.4 ± 1.2 cm ranging from 1.0 cm to 6.3 cm. The mean diameter of the nonadenomas was 5.1 ± 2.4 cm, ranging from 1.0 cm to 9.8 cm. Figure 2 shows a scattergram of the adenomas and nonadenomas according to their size. There were statistically significant differences between the diameter of the adenomas and nonadenomas (p = 0.015). One adrenal metastasis measured 1 cm in the largest diameter, and there were three malignant adrenal masses < 3 cm in the largest diameter. Fourteen (70%) nonadenomas measured < 6 cm in the largest diameter, and all were malignant. Table 2 shows the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy at each tumor diameter. In ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve for CT attenuation values (0.904 ± 0.044) was larger than that for size (0.860 ± 0.060) (Fig. 3), which indicates the unenhanced attenuation value is more useful in distinguishing between adenomas and nonadenomas than the mass size (Figs. 4-6).

Bottom Line: The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test.The diagnostic accuracy according to the size criteria from 2 cm to 6 cm was also compared.The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchondong, Seodaemungu, Seoul 120-752, Korea. kimnex@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma.

Materials and methods: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined. The CT images were obtained at a slice thickness of 2 mm to 3 mm. The mAs were varied from 100 to 160 and 200 to 280, while the 120 KVp was maintained in all cases. The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy at thresholds of 10 HU, 20 HU, and 25 HU were compared. The diagnostic accuracy according to the size criteria from 2 cm to 6 cm was also compared.

Results: The twenty-five adenomas showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) attenuation values (mean+/-SD; 16.3+/-14.9) than the nonadenomas (38.1+/-6.8). Nineteen (90%) of the 20 nonadenomas had attenuation values ranging from 30 to 50 HU. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 36%, 100%, 100%, 56%, and 64%, respectively, at a threshold of 10 HU; 60%, 100%, 100%, 67%, and 78%, respectively, at a threshold of 20 HU; and 72%, 95%, 95%, 73%, and 82%, respectively, at a threshold of 25 HU. The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm). The size criteria using a diameter of 4-6 cm showed a sensitivity > 90% but a specificity < 70%. Size criteria of 2 or 3 cm had a high specificity of 100% and 80% but a low sensitivity of 20% and 60%.

Conclusion: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma. The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus