Limits...
Nanocrystal technology, drug delivery and clinical applications.

Junghanns JU, Müller RH - Int J Nanomedicine (2008)

Bottom Line: The drug nanocrystals do not belong to the future; the first products are already on the market.The marketed products are presented and the special physical effects ofnanocrystals explained which are utilized in each market product.Examples of products in the development pipelines (clinical phases) are presented and the benefits for in vivo administration of drug nanocrystals are summarized in an overview.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Biotechnology and Quality Management, Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany. juj@junghanns.net

ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology will affect our lives tremendously over the next decade in very different fields, including medicine and pharmacy. Transfer of materials into the nanodimension changes their physical properties which were used in pharmaceutics to develop a new innovative formulation principle for poorly soluble drugs: the drug nanocrystals. The drug nanocrystals do not belong to the future; the first products are already on the market. The industrially relevant production technologies, pearl milling and high pressure homogenization, are reviewed. The physics behind the drug nanocrystals and changes of their physical properties are discussed. The marketed products are presented and the special physical effects ofnanocrystals explained which are utilized in each market product. Examples of products in the development pipelines (clinical phases) are presented and the benefits for in vivo administration of drug nanocrystals are summarized in an overview.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Surface enlargement and increase in number of crystals by particle size diminution.Used with permission from Junghanns (2006).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2626933&req=5

f1-ijn-3-295: Surface enlargement and increase in number of crystals by particle size diminution.Used with permission from Junghanns (2006).

Mentions: The size reduction leads to an increased surface area and thus according to the Noyes-Whitney equation (Noyes and Whitney 1897) to an increased dissolution velocity. Therefore micronization is a suitable way to successfully enhance the bioavailability of drugs where the dissolution velocity is the rate limiting step. By moving from micronization further down to nanonization, the particle surface is further increased and thus the dissolution velocity increases too. In most cases, a low dissolution velocity is correlated with low saturation solubility (Figure 1).


Nanocrystal technology, drug delivery and clinical applications.

Junghanns JU, Müller RH - Int J Nanomedicine (2008)

Surface enlargement and increase in number of crystals by particle size diminution.Used with permission from Junghanns (2006).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2626933&req=5

f1-ijn-3-295: Surface enlargement and increase in number of crystals by particle size diminution.Used with permission from Junghanns (2006).
Mentions: The size reduction leads to an increased surface area and thus according to the Noyes-Whitney equation (Noyes and Whitney 1897) to an increased dissolution velocity. Therefore micronization is a suitable way to successfully enhance the bioavailability of drugs where the dissolution velocity is the rate limiting step. By moving from micronization further down to nanonization, the particle surface is further increased and thus the dissolution velocity increases too. In most cases, a low dissolution velocity is correlated with low saturation solubility (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The drug nanocrystals do not belong to the future; the first products are already on the market.The marketed products are presented and the special physical effects ofnanocrystals explained which are utilized in each market product.Examples of products in the development pipelines (clinical phases) are presented and the benefits for in vivo administration of drug nanocrystals are summarized in an overview.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Biotechnology and Quality Management, Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany. juj@junghanns.net

ABSTRACT
Nanotechnology will affect our lives tremendously over the next decade in very different fields, including medicine and pharmacy. Transfer of materials into the nanodimension changes their physical properties which were used in pharmaceutics to develop a new innovative formulation principle for poorly soluble drugs: the drug nanocrystals. The drug nanocrystals do not belong to the future; the first products are already on the market. The industrially relevant production technologies, pearl milling and high pressure homogenization, are reviewed. The physics behind the drug nanocrystals and changes of their physical properties are discussed. The marketed products are presented and the special physical effects ofnanocrystals explained which are utilized in each market product. Examples of products in the development pipelines (clinical phases) are presented and the benefits for in vivo administration of drug nanocrystals are summarized in an overview.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus