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Brain ischemia and ischemic blood-brain barrier as etiological factors in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

Pluta R, Amek MU - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2008)

Bottom Line: Chronic disruption of the blood-brain barrier after ischemic injury was shown.As an effect of chronic ischemic blood-brain barrier injury, a visible connection of amyloid plaques with neurovasculature was observed.This neuropathology appears to have similar distribution and mechanisms to Alzheimer's disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Ischemic and Neurodegenerative Brain Research, Department of Neurodegenerative Disorders, Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The development of neuronal death and amyloid plaques is a characteristic feature of ischemic- and Alzheimer-type dementia. An important aspect of neuronal loss and amyloid plaques are their topography and neuropathogenesis. This review was performed to present the hypothesis that different fragments of blood-borne amyloid precursor protein are able to enter the ischemic blood-brain barrier. Chronic disruption of the blood-brain barrier after ischemic injury was shown. As an effect of chronic ischemic blood-brain barrier injury, a visible connection of amyloid plaques with neurovasculature was observed. This neuropathology appears to have similar distribution and mechanisms to Alzheimer's disease. The usefulness of rival ischemic theory in elucidating the neuropathogenesis of amyloid plaques formation and neuronal death in Alzheimer's disorder is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic diagram of the main ischemic pathological processes in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.Abbreviations: APP, amyloid precursor protein; βA, β-amyloid peptide; BBB, blood–brain barrier.
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f1-ndt-4-855: Schematic diagram of the main ischemic pathological processes in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.Abbreviations: APP, amyloid precursor protein; βA, β-amyloid peptide; BBB, blood–brain barrier.

Mentions: Some investigators have presented the hypothesis that the primary event in the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is ischemic injury of brain (Kalaria 2000; Pluta 2004b, 2006a). According to this rival theory the blood–brain barrier vessels are damaged (Kalaria 1999; Dede et al 2007) and at the same time cause the neurotoxic β-amyloid peptide to be released from circulatory system into brain parenchyma (Pluta et al 1996) and subsequently react with ischemic neurons (Koistinaho et al 2002) as secondary cause of neuronal death (Figure 1).


Brain ischemia and ischemic blood-brain barrier as etiological factors in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

Pluta R, Amek MU - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2008)

Schematic diagram of the main ischemic pathological processes in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.Abbreviations: APP, amyloid precursor protein; βA, β-amyloid peptide; BBB, blood–brain barrier.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2626921&req=5

f1-ndt-4-855: Schematic diagram of the main ischemic pathological processes in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease.Abbreviations: APP, amyloid precursor protein; βA, β-amyloid peptide; BBB, blood–brain barrier.
Mentions: Some investigators have presented the hypothesis that the primary event in the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is ischemic injury of brain (Kalaria 2000; Pluta 2004b, 2006a). According to this rival theory the blood–brain barrier vessels are damaged (Kalaria 1999; Dede et al 2007) and at the same time cause the neurotoxic β-amyloid peptide to be released from circulatory system into brain parenchyma (Pluta et al 1996) and subsequently react with ischemic neurons (Koistinaho et al 2002) as secondary cause of neuronal death (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Chronic disruption of the blood-brain barrier after ischemic injury was shown.As an effect of chronic ischemic blood-brain barrier injury, a visible connection of amyloid plaques with neurovasculature was observed.This neuropathology appears to have similar distribution and mechanisms to Alzheimer's disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Ischemic and Neurodegenerative Brain Research, Department of Neurodegenerative Disorders, Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The development of neuronal death and amyloid plaques is a characteristic feature of ischemic- and Alzheimer-type dementia. An important aspect of neuronal loss and amyloid plaques are their topography and neuropathogenesis. This review was performed to present the hypothesis that different fragments of blood-borne amyloid precursor protein are able to enter the ischemic blood-brain barrier. Chronic disruption of the blood-brain barrier after ischemic injury was shown. As an effect of chronic ischemic blood-brain barrier injury, a visible connection of amyloid plaques with neurovasculature was observed. This neuropathology appears to have similar distribution and mechanisms to Alzheimer's disease. The usefulness of rival ischemic theory in elucidating the neuropathogenesis of amyloid plaques formation and neuronal death in Alzheimer's disorder is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus