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Degradable gelatin microspheres as an embolic agent: an experimental study in a rabbit renal model.

Ohta S, Nitta N, Takahashi M, Murata K, Tabata Y - Korean J Radiol (2007 Sep-Oct)

Bottom Line: On days 3, 7, and 14, parenchymal infarctions were observed histologically in all cases, and this observation corresponded with the parenchyma being supplied by the embolized arteries.GMSs of group 1 mainly reached the interlobular arteries, while those of group 3 mainly reached the interlobar arteries.In all but two cases, the GMSs were identified histologically even on day 14, and sequential degradation was histologically identified in all GMS groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan. junryuhei@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the basic characteristics of degradable gelatin microspheres (GMSs), including their embolic behavior and degradation periods when they are used as embolic materials in the renal arteries of rabbit models.

Materials and methods: Based on the GMS particle size, 24 kidneys were divided into 3 groups of eight kidneys, and each group was embolized with a different GMS particle size (group 1: 35-100 microm, group 2: 100-200 microm, and group 3: 200-300 microm). From each group, two rabbits were sacrificed immediately after embolization (day 0), and a pair of rabbits from each group underwent an angiogram and were sacrificed on days 3, 7, and 14, respectively, after embolization. The level of arterial occlusion, the pathological changes in the renal parenchyma, and the degradation of the GMSs were evaluated angiographically and histologically.

Results: A follow-up angiogram on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 revealed the presence of wedge-shaped poorly-enhanced areas in the parenchymal phase as seen in all groups. The size of these areas tended to increase with the particle diameter, and persisted up to day 14. On days 3, 7, and 14, parenchymal infarctions were observed histologically in all cases, and this observation corresponded with the parenchyma being supplied by the embolized arteries. GMSs of group 1 mainly reached the interlobular arteries, while those of group 3 mainly reached the interlobar arteries. In all but two cases, the GMSs were identified histologically even on day 14, and sequential degradation was histologically identified in all GMS groups.

Conclusion: GMSs can be used as degradable embolic materials which can control the level of embolization.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Sequential left renal angiograms showing the reperfusion of the interlobar arteries. (A) Angiogram immediately after the embolization; (B) angiogram on day 7; and (C) angiogram on day 14.A. The angiogram conducted immediately after embolization showed diffused poorly-enhanced areas of the renal parenchyma in group 1.B. The angiogram on day 7 showed that the parenchymal enhancement was restored, while the interlobar arteries were still poorly visualized. Small poorly-enhanced areas (arrows) were also found in the subcortical area.C. Angiogram on day 14 showed the recanalization of the interlobar arteries (arrowheads) with few remaining small poorly-enhanced areas (arrows). (case number: No. 7)
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Figure 5: Sequential left renal angiograms showing the reperfusion of the interlobar arteries. (A) Angiogram immediately after the embolization; (B) angiogram on day 7; and (C) angiogram on day 14.A. The angiogram conducted immediately after embolization showed diffused poorly-enhanced areas of the renal parenchyma in group 1.B. The angiogram on day 7 showed that the parenchymal enhancement was restored, while the interlobar arteries were still poorly visualized. Small poorly-enhanced areas (arrows) were also found in the subcortical area.C. Angiogram on day 14 showed the recanalization of the interlobar arteries (arrowheads) with few remaining small poorly-enhanced areas (arrows). (case number: No. 7)

Mentions: Sequential angiographic findings were obtained throughout the experiment (14 days) for five kidneys in five cases (cases 7, 15, 16, 23, and 24). In case 7 (group 1), the interlobar arteries were reperfused to a greater extent on day 14 than on day 7 (Fig. 5). In case 16 (group 2), the interlobar arteries were reperfused to a greater extent on day 14 than on day 3. However, no reperfusion of the interlobar arteries was observed in cases 15 (group 2), 23 (group 3), and 24 (group 3).


Degradable gelatin microspheres as an embolic agent: an experimental study in a rabbit renal model.

Ohta S, Nitta N, Takahashi M, Murata K, Tabata Y - Korean J Radiol (2007 Sep-Oct)

Sequential left renal angiograms showing the reperfusion of the interlobar arteries. (A) Angiogram immediately after the embolization; (B) angiogram on day 7; and (C) angiogram on day 14.A. The angiogram conducted immediately after embolization showed diffused poorly-enhanced areas of the renal parenchyma in group 1.B. The angiogram on day 7 showed that the parenchymal enhancement was restored, while the interlobar arteries were still poorly visualized. Small poorly-enhanced areas (arrows) were also found in the subcortical area.C. Angiogram on day 14 showed the recanalization of the interlobar arteries (arrowheads) with few remaining small poorly-enhanced areas (arrows). (case number: No. 7)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2626815&req=5

Figure 5: Sequential left renal angiograms showing the reperfusion of the interlobar arteries. (A) Angiogram immediately after the embolization; (B) angiogram on day 7; and (C) angiogram on day 14.A. The angiogram conducted immediately after embolization showed diffused poorly-enhanced areas of the renal parenchyma in group 1.B. The angiogram on day 7 showed that the parenchymal enhancement was restored, while the interlobar arteries were still poorly visualized. Small poorly-enhanced areas (arrows) were also found in the subcortical area.C. Angiogram on day 14 showed the recanalization of the interlobar arteries (arrowheads) with few remaining small poorly-enhanced areas (arrows). (case number: No. 7)
Mentions: Sequential angiographic findings were obtained throughout the experiment (14 days) for five kidneys in five cases (cases 7, 15, 16, 23, and 24). In case 7 (group 1), the interlobar arteries were reperfused to a greater extent on day 14 than on day 7 (Fig. 5). In case 16 (group 2), the interlobar arteries were reperfused to a greater extent on day 14 than on day 3. However, no reperfusion of the interlobar arteries was observed in cases 15 (group 2), 23 (group 3), and 24 (group 3).

Bottom Line: On days 3, 7, and 14, parenchymal infarctions were observed histologically in all cases, and this observation corresponded with the parenchyma being supplied by the embolized arteries.GMSs of group 1 mainly reached the interlobular arteries, while those of group 3 mainly reached the interlobar arteries.In all but two cases, the GMSs were identified histologically even on day 14, and sequential degradation was histologically identified in all GMS groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan. junryuhei@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the basic characteristics of degradable gelatin microspheres (GMSs), including their embolic behavior and degradation periods when they are used as embolic materials in the renal arteries of rabbit models.

Materials and methods: Based on the GMS particle size, 24 kidneys were divided into 3 groups of eight kidneys, and each group was embolized with a different GMS particle size (group 1: 35-100 microm, group 2: 100-200 microm, and group 3: 200-300 microm). From each group, two rabbits were sacrificed immediately after embolization (day 0), and a pair of rabbits from each group underwent an angiogram and were sacrificed on days 3, 7, and 14, respectively, after embolization. The level of arterial occlusion, the pathological changes in the renal parenchyma, and the degradation of the GMSs were evaluated angiographically and histologically.

Results: A follow-up angiogram on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 revealed the presence of wedge-shaped poorly-enhanced areas in the parenchymal phase as seen in all groups. The size of these areas tended to increase with the particle diameter, and persisted up to day 14. On days 3, 7, and 14, parenchymal infarctions were observed histologically in all cases, and this observation corresponded with the parenchyma being supplied by the embolized arteries. GMSs of group 1 mainly reached the interlobular arteries, while those of group 3 mainly reached the interlobar arteries. In all but two cases, the GMSs were identified histologically even on day 14, and sequential degradation was histologically identified in all GMS groups.

Conclusion: GMSs can be used as degradable embolic materials which can control the level of embolization.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus