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The 5-choice continuous performance test: evidence for a translational test of vigilance for mice.

Young JW, Light GA, Marston HM, Sharp R, Geyer MA - PLoS ONE (2009)

Bottom Line: Although vigilance is assessed frequently using the continuous performance test (CPT) in humans, few tests specifically assess vigilance in rodents.Finally, we observed increased RTs with increased attentional load, such that 1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT, consistent with human performance in simple RT, choice RT, and CPT tasks.Thus we have demonstrated construct validity for the 5C-CPT as a measure of vigilance that is analogous to human CPT studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America. jaredyoung@ucsd.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Attentional dysfunction is related to functional disability in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, sustained attention/vigilance is among the leading targets for new medications designed to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Although vigilance is assessed frequently using the continuous performance test (CPT) in humans, few tests specifically assess vigilance in rodents.

Methods: We describe the 5-choice CPT (5C-CPT), an elaboration of the 5-choice serial reaction (5CSR) task that includes non-signal trials, thus mimicking task parameters of human CPTs that use signal and non-signal events to assess vigilance. The performances of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice were assessed in the 5C-CPT to determine whether this task could differentiate between strains. C57BL/6J mice were also trained in the 5CSR task and a simple reaction-time (RT) task involving only one choice (1CRT task). We hypothesized that: 1) C57BL/6J performance would be superior to DBA/2J mice in the 5C-CPT as measured by the sensitivity index measure from signal detection theory; 2) a vigilance decrement would be observed in both strains; and 3) RTs would increase across tasks with increased attentional load (1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT).

Conclusions: C57BL/6J mice exhibited superior SI levels compared to DBA/2J mice, but with no difference in accuracy. A vigilance decrement was observed in both strains, which was more pronounced in DBA/2J mice and unaffected by response bias. Finally, we observed increased RTs with increased attentional load, such that 1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT, consistent with human performance in simple RT, choice RT, and CPT tasks. Thus we have demonstrated construct validity for the 5C-CPT as a measure of vigilance that is analogous to human CPT studies.

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Performance of C57BL/6J mice across simple and choice RT tasks as well as in the 5C-CPT at baseline.Three separate groups of C57BL/6J mice were trained in a simple (1CRT task) and choice (5CSR task) RT tasks as well as the 5C-CPT. Significant differences in performance were observed across tasks, where consistent with human performance, RT was fastest in a simple RT task, and slowest in a vigilance task (A). Performance also differed as measured by premature responses, with the greatest levels observed in the simple RT task requiring the lowest level of inhibitory control (B). Increased %Omissions were observed with increased attentional load, although these effects were not significant (C). Data presented as mean+s.e.m., * denotes p<0.05 and $ denotes p<0.1 when compared to tasks indicated.
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pone-0004227-g007: Performance of C57BL/6J mice across simple and choice RT tasks as well as in the 5C-CPT at baseline.Three separate groups of C57BL/6J mice were trained in a simple (1CRT task) and choice (5CSR task) RT tasks as well as the 5C-CPT. Significant differences in performance were observed across tasks, where consistent with human performance, RT was fastest in a simple RT task, and slowest in a vigilance task (A). Performance also differed as measured by premature responses, with the greatest levels observed in the simple RT task requiring the lowest level of inhibitory control (B). Increased %Omissions were observed with increased attentional load, although these effects were not significant (C). Data presented as mean+s.e.m., * denotes p<0.05 and $ denotes p<0.1 when compared to tasks indicated.

Mentions: Baseline performances (maximum of 120 trials) of C57BL/6J mice in a simple RT task, choice RT task, and the 5C-CPT were compared. A significant main effect of task type on RT was observed (F(2,11) = 7.3, p<0.01; Fig 7A). Post hoc analyses revealed a significant MCL difference between 5C-CPT and 1CRT task performance, but only a trend towards significance between the 5C-CPT and 5CSR task (p = 0.066), and the 1CRT task and 5CSR task (p = 0.054). A significant main effect of task was observed for premature responding (F(2,11) = 6.8, p<0.05; Fig 7B), with Tukey post hoc analyses revealing that premature response levels in the 1CRT task were higher compared to both 5CSR task and 5C-CPT (p<0.05), while levels in the 5CSR task did not differ from the 5C-CPT (p>0.05). No significant main effect of task was observed in %Omissions (F(2,11) = 0.04, NS; Fig. 7C). Consistent with the studies reported above, performance was then challenged by extending the session length to 250 trials, thus increasing the attentional load.


The 5-choice continuous performance test: evidence for a translational test of vigilance for mice.

Young JW, Light GA, Marston HM, Sharp R, Geyer MA - PLoS ONE (2009)

Performance of C57BL/6J mice across simple and choice RT tasks as well as in the 5C-CPT at baseline.Three separate groups of C57BL/6J mice were trained in a simple (1CRT task) and choice (5CSR task) RT tasks as well as the 5C-CPT. Significant differences in performance were observed across tasks, where consistent with human performance, RT was fastest in a simple RT task, and slowest in a vigilance task (A). Performance also differed as measured by premature responses, with the greatest levels observed in the simple RT task requiring the lowest level of inhibitory control (B). Increased %Omissions were observed with increased attentional load, although these effects were not significant (C). Data presented as mean+s.e.m., * denotes p<0.05 and $ denotes p<0.1 when compared to tasks indicated.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2626630&req=5

pone-0004227-g007: Performance of C57BL/6J mice across simple and choice RT tasks as well as in the 5C-CPT at baseline.Three separate groups of C57BL/6J mice were trained in a simple (1CRT task) and choice (5CSR task) RT tasks as well as the 5C-CPT. Significant differences in performance were observed across tasks, where consistent with human performance, RT was fastest in a simple RT task, and slowest in a vigilance task (A). Performance also differed as measured by premature responses, with the greatest levels observed in the simple RT task requiring the lowest level of inhibitory control (B). Increased %Omissions were observed with increased attentional load, although these effects were not significant (C). Data presented as mean+s.e.m., * denotes p<0.05 and $ denotes p<0.1 when compared to tasks indicated.
Mentions: Baseline performances (maximum of 120 trials) of C57BL/6J mice in a simple RT task, choice RT task, and the 5C-CPT were compared. A significant main effect of task type on RT was observed (F(2,11) = 7.3, p<0.01; Fig 7A). Post hoc analyses revealed a significant MCL difference between 5C-CPT and 1CRT task performance, but only a trend towards significance between the 5C-CPT and 5CSR task (p = 0.066), and the 1CRT task and 5CSR task (p = 0.054). A significant main effect of task was observed for premature responding (F(2,11) = 6.8, p<0.05; Fig 7B), with Tukey post hoc analyses revealing that premature response levels in the 1CRT task were higher compared to both 5CSR task and 5C-CPT (p<0.05), while levels in the 5CSR task did not differ from the 5C-CPT (p>0.05). No significant main effect of task was observed in %Omissions (F(2,11) = 0.04, NS; Fig. 7C). Consistent with the studies reported above, performance was then challenged by extending the session length to 250 trials, thus increasing the attentional load.

Bottom Line: Although vigilance is assessed frequently using the continuous performance test (CPT) in humans, few tests specifically assess vigilance in rodents.Finally, we observed increased RTs with increased attentional load, such that 1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT, consistent with human performance in simple RT, choice RT, and CPT tasks.Thus we have demonstrated construct validity for the 5C-CPT as a measure of vigilance that is analogous to human CPT studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America. jaredyoung@ucsd.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Attentional dysfunction is related to functional disability in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease. Indeed, sustained attention/vigilance is among the leading targets for new medications designed to improve cognition in schizophrenia. Although vigilance is assessed frequently using the continuous performance test (CPT) in humans, few tests specifically assess vigilance in rodents.

Methods: We describe the 5-choice CPT (5C-CPT), an elaboration of the 5-choice serial reaction (5CSR) task that includes non-signal trials, thus mimicking task parameters of human CPTs that use signal and non-signal events to assess vigilance. The performances of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice were assessed in the 5C-CPT to determine whether this task could differentiate between strains. C57BL/6J mice were also trained in the 5CSR task and a simple reaction-time (RT) task involving only one choice (1CRT task). We hypothesized that: 1) C57BL/6J performance would be superior to DBA/2J mice in the 5C-CPT as measured by the sensitivity index measure from signal detection theory; 2) a vigilance decrement would be observed in both strains; and 3) RTs would increase across tasks with increased attentional load (1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT).

Conclusions: C57BL/6J mice exhibited superior SI levels compared to DBA/2J mice, but with no difference in accuracy. A vigilance decrement was observed in both strains, which was more pronounced in DBA/2J mice and unaffected by response bias. Finally, we observed increased RTs with increased attentional load, such that 1CRT task<5CSR task<5C-CPT, consistent with human performance in simple RT, choice RT, and CPT tasks. Thus we have demonstrated construct validity for the 5C-CPT as a measure of vigilance that is analogous to human CPT studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus