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Normal stem cells in cancer prone epithelial tissues.

Phesse TJ, Clarke AR - Br. J. Cancer (2009)

Bottom Line: Over recent years the concept has enjoyed renewed enthusiasm, partly because of our growing understanding of the nature of somatic stem cells, but also because of a growing realisation that the development of strategies that target cancer stem cells may offer considerable advantages over conventional approaches.However, despite this renewed enthusiasm the existence of cancer stem cells remains controversial in many tumour types and any potential relationship to the normal stem cell pool remains poorly defined.This review summarises key elements of our understanding of the normal stem cell populations within animal models of the predominant cancer prone epithelial tissues, and further investigates the potential links between these populations and putative cancer stem cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

ABSTRACT
The concept of a cancer stem cell is not a new one, being first suggested over 100 years ago. Over recent years the concept has enjoyed renewed enthusiasm, partly because of our growing understanding of the nature of somatic stem cells, but also because of a growing realisation that the development of strategies that target cancer stem cells may offer considerable advantages over conventional approaches. However, despite this renewed enthusiasm the existence of cancer stem cells remains controversial in many tumour types and any potential relationship to the normal stem cell pool remains poorly defined. This review summarises key elements of our understanding of the normal stem cell populations within animal models of the predominant cancer prone epithelial tissues, and further investigates the potential links between these populations and putative cancer stem cells.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Location of stem cells. Prostate gland. The putative prostatic stem cells are located in the basal cells surrounding the columnar secretory cells of the distal prostatic duct. Hair-follicle. Skin stem cells are located under the sebaceous gland in a region known as the bulge. During rest periods, stem cells of the bulge region form the base of the hair-follicle. During the start of each new growth cycle stem cells located at the base of the bulge become active to form the highly proliferative new hair germ. The interfollicular epidermis is a stratified epithelium, containing unipotent progenitor cells and transit-amplifying cells located in the basal layer. Basal cells differentiate upward to form the spinous, granular, and stratum corneum layers of the epidermis. Mammary gland. The mammary gland consists of a branching network of ducts, terminating in alveolar buds. Mammary stem cells are thought to be located in the basal, myoepithelial layer, which tightly surrounds the ductal epithelial layer. The secretory alveolar cells are also surrounded by a looser association of myoepithelial cells. Intestinal crypt. The crypt stem cell had previously been located to position 4–6, just above the base of the crypt. Recent data now suggests the putative stem cells of the intestine (red) are narrow cells located between Paneth cells near the base of the crypt. Cells leaving the proliferation zone migrate upward towards the villus tip and differentiate into one of three cell types, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells, and enterocytes, to form the villus. A fourth cell type, the Paneth cells, migrate downward to the crypt base. Lungs. The putative lung stem cells are located at the junction between the branching, bronchial region and the alveolar sac, and express markers from ATII cells and Clara cells.
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fig1: Location of stem cells. Prostate gland. The putative prostatic stem cells are located in the basal cells surrounding the columnar secretory cells of the distal prostatic duct. Hair-follicle. Skin stem cells are located under the sebaceous gland in a region known as the bulge. During rest periods, stem cells of the bulge region form the base of the hair-follicle. During the start of each new growth cycle stem cells located at the base of the bulge become active to form the highly proliferative new hair germ. The interfollicular epidermis is a stratified epithelium, containing unipotent progenitor cells and transit-amplifying cells located in the basal layer. Basal cells differentiate upward to form the spinous, granular, and stratum corneum layers of the epidermis. Mammary gland. The mammary gland consists of a branching network of ducts, terminating in alveolar buds. Mammary stem cells are thought to be located in the basal, myoepithelial layer, which tightly surrounds the ductal epithelial layer. The secretory alveolar cells are also surrounded by a looser association of myoepithelial cells. Intestinal crypt. The crypt stem cell had previously been located to position 4–6, just above the base of the crypt. Recent data now suggests the putative stem cells of the intestine (red) are narrow cells located between Paneth cells near the base of the crypt. Cells leaving the proliferation zone migrate upward towards the villus tip and differentiate into one of three cell types, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells, and enterocytes, to form the villus. A fourth cell type, the Paneth cells, migrate downward to the crypt base. Lungs. The putative lung stem cells are located at the junction between the branching, bronchial region and the alveolar sac, and express markers from ATII cells and Clara cells.

Mentions: Recently, Lawson et al (2007) demonstrated that a CD45−/CD31−/Ter119−/Sca-1+/CD49f+ cell subpopulation isolated from mouse prostate is enriched for cells capable of both colony and sphere formation in vitro. These cells can also differentiate to produce prostatic tubule structures in vivo, containing both basal and luminal cells, when injected subcutaneously into SCID mice. However, only 1 in 35 enriched cells was capable of developing prostate structures in vivo, suggesting that the stem cell is not defined by these markers and that further markers are also required to be expressed correctly (positively or negatively) (Lawson et al, 2007). CD45− CD31− Ter119− Sca-1+ CD49f+ enriched cells localised to the basal layer within the proximal region of the prostate after injection suggesting that this is the endogenous location of stem cells in the murine prostate (Figure 1).


Normal stem cells in cancer prone epithelial tissues.

Phesse TJ, Clarke AR - Br. J. Cancer (2009)

Location of stem cells. Prostate gland. The putative prostatic stem cells are located in the basal cells surrounding the columnar secretory cells of the distal prostatic duct. Hair-follicle. Skin stem cells are located under the sebaceous gland in a region known as the bulge. During rest periods, stem cells of the bulge region form the base of the hair-follicle. During the start of each new growth cycle stem cells located at the base of the bulge become active to form the highly proliferative new hair germ. The interfollicular epidermis is a stratified epithelium, containing unipotent progenitor cells and transit-amplifying cells located in the basal layer. Basal cells differentiate upward to form the spinous, granular, and stratum corneum layers of the epidermis. Mammary gland. The mammary gland consists of a branching network of ducts, terminating in alveolar buds. Mammary stem cells are thought to be located in the basal, myoepithelial layer, which tightly surrounds the ductal epithelial layer. The secretory alveolar cells are also surrounded by a looser association of myoepithelial cells. Intestinal crypt. The crypt stem cell had previously been located to position 4–6, just above the base of the crypt. Recent data now suggests the putative stem cells of the intestine (red) are narrow cells located between Paneth cells near the base of the crypt. Cells leaving the proliferation zone migrate upward towards the villus tip and differentiate into one of three cell types, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells, and enterocytes, to form the villus. A fourth cell type, the Paneth cells, migrate downward to the crypt base. Lungs. The putative lung stem cells are located at the junction between the branching, bronchial region and the alveolar sac, and express markers from ATII cells and Clara cells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2625959&req=5

fig1: Location of stem cells. Prostate gland. The putative prostatic stem cells are located in the basal cells surrounding the columnar secretory cells of the distal prostatic duct. Hair-follicle. Skin stem cells are located under the sebaceous gland in a region known as the bulge. During rest periods, stem cells of the bulge region form the base of the hair-follicle. During the start of each new growth cycle stem cells located at the base of the bulge become active to form the highly proliferative new hair germ. The interfollicular epidermis is a stratified epithelium, containing unipotent progenitor cells and transit-amplifying cells located in the basal layer. Basal cells differentiate upward to form the spinous, granular, and stratum corneum layers of the epidermis. Mammary gland. The mammary gland consists of a branching network of ducts, terminating in alveolar buds. Mammary stem cells are thought to be located in the basal, myoepithelial layer, which tightly surrounds the ductal epithelial layer. The secretory alveolar cells are also surrounded by a looser association of myoepithelial cells. Intestinal crypt. The crypt stem cell had previously been located to position 4–6, just above the base of the crypt. Recent data now suggests the putative stem cells of the intestine (red) are narrow cells located between Paneth cells near the base of the crypt. Cells leaving the proliferation zone migrate upward towards the villus tip and differentiate into one of three cell types, enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells, and enterocytes, to form the villus. A fourth cell type, the Paneth cells, migrate downward to the crypt base. Lungs. The putative lung stem cells are located at the junction between the branching, bronchial region and the alveolar sac, and express markers from ATII cells and Clara cells.
Mentions: Recently, Lawson et al (2007) demonstrated that a CD45−/CD31−/Ter119−/Sca-1+/CD49f+ cell subpopulation isolated from mouse prostate is enriched for cells capable of both colony and sphere formation in vitro. These cells can also differentiate to produce prostatic tubule structures in vivo, containing both basal and luminal cells, when injected subcutaneously into SCID mice. However, only 1 in 35 enriched cells was capable of developing prostate structures in vivo, suggesting that the stem cell is not defined by these markers and that further markers are also required to be expressed correctly (positively or negatively) (Lawson et al, 2007). CD45− CD31− Ter119− Sca-1+ CD49f+ enriched cells localised to the basal layer within the proximal region of the prostate after injection suggesting that this is the endogenous location of stem cells in the murine prostate (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Over recent years the concept has enjoyed renewed enthusiasm, partly because of our growing understanding of the nature of somatic stem cells, but also because of a growing realisation that the development of strategies that target cancer stem cells may offer considerable advantages over conventional approaches.However, despite this renewed enthusiasm the existence of cancer stem cells remains controversial in many tumour types and any potential relationship to the normal stem cell pool remains poorly defined.This review summarises key elements of our understanding of the normal stem cell populations within animal models of the predominant cancer prone epithelial tissues, and further investigates the potential links between these populations and putative cancer stem cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

ABSTRACT
The concept of a cancer stem cell is not a new one, being first suggested over 100 years ago. Over recent years the concept has enjoyed renewed enthusiasm, partly because of our growing understanding of the nature of somatic stem cells, but also because of a growing realisation that the development of strategies that target cancer stem cells may offer considerable advantages over conventional approaches. However, despite this renewed enthusiasm the existence of cancer stem cells remains controversial in many tumour types and any potential relationship to the normal stem cell pool remains poorly defined. This review summarises key elements of our understanding of the normal stem cell populations within animal models of the predominant cancer prone epithelial tissues, and further investigates the potential links between these populations and putative cancer stem cells.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus