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New hosts for equine herpesvirus 9.

Schrenzel MD, Tucker TA, Donovan TA, Busch MD, Wise AG, Maes RK, Kiupel M - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy's zebras.The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager.Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoological Society of San Diego, Wildlife Disease Laboratories, Escondido, California 92027, USA. mschrenzel@sandiegozoo.org

ABSTRACT
Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy's zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogram of all equine herpesviruses and related viruses from other animals and their respective hosts created from a predicted amino acid segment of the DNA polymerase gene. All sequences obtained in this study are in boldface; bootstrap values >1,000 replicates are denoted. Note clustering of equine gammaherpesviruses and paraphyletic grouping of equine herpesviruses (EHV) -1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 with primate herpesviruses and dolphin herpesvirus. Sequence accessions, sources, and abbreviations are as follows: mountain zebra (Equus zebra) herpesvirus AAS75147; Damara’s zebra (E. burchellii antiquorum) herpesvirus EU17155; eastern kiang (E. kiang holdereri) herpesvirus EU17156; Somali wild ass (E. asinus somalicus) herpesvirus EU71754; EHV-7 from domestic horse (E. caballus) ABW04888; asinine herpesvirus 4 (AHV-4) from donkey (E. asinus) AAL14770; hyena (Crocuta crocuta) herpesvirus AB121852; EHV-2 from domestic horse ABS81334; suid herpesvirus 1 from domestic swine (Sus scrofa) DAA02153; elk (Cervus canadensis) herpesvirus ABC58213; cervid herpesvirus 1 from elk (Cervus canadensis) ABC58214; bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) from domestic cattle (Bos taurus) ABC58212; bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) from domestic cattle NP_954917; phocine herpesvirus 1 from Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsii); canid herpesvirus 1 from domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) ACB46532; felid herpesvirus 1 from domestic cat (Felis cattus domesticus) CAA12264; human herpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) from humans (Homo sapiens) AAL49731; cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 (CeHV-2) from African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) YP_164473; EHV-4 from domestic horse; EHV-1 from domestic horse BAG24215; EHV-9 from Grevy’s zebra (E. Grevy’si), Persian onager (E. hemionus onager), and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) EU17146, EU17147, and EU17149; EHV-3 from domestic horse AF514779; and dolphin herpesvirus from bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatas) AAV1097. The following 3 sequences were outgroups: tortoise herpesvirus from land tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) ABC70838, gallid herpesvirus 2 from domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) AAC55651, and columbid herpesvirus 1 from rock pigeon (Columba livia) ABP93390.
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Figure 2: Phylogram of all equine herpesviruses and related viruses from other animals and their respective hosts created from a predicted amino acid segment of the DNA polymerase gene. All sequences obtained in this study are in boldface; bootstrap values >1,000 replicates are denoted. Note clustering of equine gammaherpesviruses and paraphyletic grouping of equine herpesviruses (EHV) -1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 with primate herpesviruses and dolphin herpesvirus. Sequence accessions, sources, and abbreviations are as follows: mountain zebra (Equus zebra) herpesvirus AAS75147; Damara’s zebra (E. burchellii antiquorum) herpesvirus EU17155; eastern kiang (E. kiang holdereri) herpesvirus EU17156; Somali wild ass (E. asinus somalicus) herpesvirus EU71754; EHV-7 from domestic horse (E. caballus) ABW04888; asinine herpesvirus 4 (AHV-4) from donkey (E. asinus) AAL14770; hyena (Crocuta crocuta) herpesvirus AB121852; EHV-2 from domestic horse ABS81334; suid herpesvirus 1 from domestic swine (Sus scrofa) DAA02153; elk (Cervus canadensis) herpesvirus ABC58213; cervid herpesvirus 1 from elk (Cervus canadensis) ABC58214; bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) from domestic cattle (Bos taurus) ABC58212; bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) from domestic cattle NP_954917; phocine herpesvirus 1 from Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsii); canid herpesvirus 1 from domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) ACB46532; felid herpesvirus 1 from domestic cat (Felis cattus domesticus) CAA12264; human herpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) from humans (Homo sapiens) AAL49731; cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 (CeHV-2) from African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) YP_164473; EHV-4 from domestic horse; EHV-1 from domestic horse BAG24215; EHV-9 from Grevy’s zebra (E. Grevy’si), Persian onager (E. hemionus onager), and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) EU17146, EU17147, and EU17149; EHV-3 from domestic horse AF514779; and dolphin herpesvirus from bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatas) AAV1097. The following 3 sequences were outgroups: tortoise herpesvirus from land tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) ABC70838, gallid herpesvirus 2 from domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) AAC55651, and columbid herpesvirus 1 from rock pigeon (Columba livia) ABP93390.

Mentions: To test the possibility that other reservoirs of EHV-9 exist, we conducted a molecular survey using herpesvirus consensus-based PCRs for DNA polymerase, terminase, and gB gene segments and EHV-9–specific PCRs. Samples were blood and nasal swabs from a Damara’s zebra (E. burchellii antiquorum), Somali wild ass (E. asinus somalicus), and eastern kiang (E. kiang holdereri) from the aforementioned San Diego zoological park (6–8). Novel herpesviruses, but not EHV-9, were detected in all 3 equid species. Distance analyses of DNA and predicted amino acid sequences from these novel herpesviruses, EHV-9, and previously described viruses from a variety of animals were done by using PAUP (11). Phylograms from neighbor-joining distance and parsimony methods showed a partitioning of the equid herpesviruses into 2 clades, representing alpha- and gammaherpesviruses. One clade included EHV-9, EHV-1, and EHV-4 and was paraphyletic to herpesviruses from primates; the other clade comprised equid herpesviruses and a hyena herpesvirus that branched separately from other viruses (Figure 2). Phylograms derived from gB and terminase gene segments, individually or concatenated, produced comparable results. GenBank accession numbers for all sequences from this study are EU17146–EU17156.


New hosts for equine herpesvirus 9.

Schrenzel MD, Tucker TA, Donovan TA, Busch MD, Wise AG, Maes RK, Kiupel M - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Phylogram of all equine herpesviruses and related viruses from other animals and their respective hosts created from a predicted amino acid segment of the DNA polymerase gene. All sequences obtained in this study are in boldface; bootstrap values >1,000 replicates are denoted. Note clustering of equine gammaherpesviruses and paraphyletic grouping of equine herpesviruses (EHV) -1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 with primate herpesviruses and dolphin herpesvirus. Sequence accessions, sources, and abbreviations are as follows: mountain zebra (Equus zebra) herpesvirus AAS75147; Damara’s zebra (E. burchellii antiquorum) herpesvirus EU17155; eastern kiang (E. kiang holdereri) herpesvirus EU17156; Somali wild ass (E. asinus somalicus) herpesvirus EU71754; EHV-7 from domestic horse (E. caballus) ABW04888; asinine herpesvirus 4 (AHV-4) from donkey (E. asinus) AAL14770; hyena (Crocuta crocuta) herpesvirus AB121852; EHV-2 from domestic horse ABS81334; suid herpesvirus 1 from domestic swine (Sus scrofa) DAA02153; elk (Cervus canadensis) herpesvirus ABC58213; cervid herpesvirus 1 from elk (Cervus canadensis) ABC58214; bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) from domestic cattle (Bos taurus) ABC58212; bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) from domestic cattle NP_954917; phocine herpesvirus 1 from Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsii); canid herpesvirus 1 from domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) ACB46532; felid herpesvirus 1 from domestic cat (Felis cattus domesticus) CAA12264; human herpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) from humans (Homo sapiens) AAL49731; cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 (CeHV-2) from African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) YP_164473; EHV-4 from domestic horse; EHV-1 from domestic horse BAG24215; EHV-9 from Grevy’s zebra (E. Grevy’si), Persian onager (E. hemionus onager), and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) EU17146, EU17147, and EU17149; EHV-3 from domestic horse AF514779; and dolphin herpesvirus from bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatas) AAV1097. The following 3 sequences were outgroups: tortoise herpesvirus from land tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) ABC70838, gallid herpesvirus 2 from domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) AAC55651, and columbid herpesvirus 1 from rock pigeon (Columba livia) ABP93390.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 2: Phylogram of all equine herpesviruses and related viruses from other animals and their respective hosts created from a predicted amino acid segment of the DNA polymerase gene. All sequences obtained in this study are in boldface; bootstrap values >1,000 replicates are denoted. Note clustering of equine gammaherpesviruses and paraphyletic grouping of equine herpesviruses (EHV) -1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 with primate herpesviruses and dolphin herpesvirus. Sequence accessions, sources, and abbreviations are as follows: mountain zebra (Equus zebra) herpesvirus AAS75147; Damara’s zebra (E. burchellii antiquorum) herpesvirus EU17155; eastern kiang (E. kiang holdereri) herpesvirus EU17156; Somali wild ass (E. asinus somalicus) herpesvirus EU71754; EHV-7 from domestic horse (E. caballus) ABW04888; asinine herpesvirus 4 (AHV-4) from donkey (E. asinus) AAL14770; hyena (Crocuta crocuta) herpesvirus AB121852; EHV-2 from domestic horse ABS81334; suid herpesvirus 1 from domestic swine (Sus scrofa) DAA02153; elk (Cervus canadensis) herpesvirus ABC58213; cervid herpesvirus 1 from elk (Cervus canadensis) ABC58214; bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) from domestic cattle (Bos taurus) ABC58212; bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5) from domestic cattle NP_954917; phocine herpesvirus 1 from Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsii); canid herpesvirus 1 from domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) ACB46532; felid herpesvirus 1 from domestic cat (Felis cattus domesticus) CAA12264; human herpesvirus 1 (HSV-1) from humans (Homo sapiens) AAL49731; cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 (CeHV-2) from African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) YP_164473; EHV-4 from domestic horse; EHV-1 from domestic horse BAG24215; EHV-9 from Grevy’s zebra (E. Grevy’si), Persian onager (E. hemionus onager), and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) EU17146, EU17147, and EU17149; EHV-3 from domestic horse AF514779; and dolphin herpesvirus from bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatas) AAV1097. The following 3 sequences were outgroups: tortoise herpesvirus from land tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii) ABC70838, gallid herpesvirus 2 from domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) AAC55651, and columbid herpesvirus 1 from rock pigeon (Columba livia) ABP93390.
Mentions: To test the possibility that other reservoirs of EHV-9 exist, we conducted a molecular survey using herpesvirus consensus-based PCRs for DNA polymerase, terminase, and gB gene segments and EHV-9–specific PCRs. Samples were blood and nasal swabs from a Damara’s zebra (E. burchellii antiquorum), Somali wild ass (E. asinus somalicus), and eastern kiang (E. kiang holdereri) from the aforementioned San Diego zoological park (6–8). Novel herpesviruses, but not EHV-9, were detected in all 3 equid species. Distance analyses of DNA and predicted amino acid sequences from these novel herpesviruses, EHV-9, and previously described viruses from a variety of animals were done by using PAUP (11). Phylograms from neighbor-joining distance and parsimony methods showed a partitioning of the equid herpesviruses into 2 clades, representing alpha- and gammaherpesviruses. One clade included EHV-9, EHV-1, and EHV-4 and was paraphyletic to herpesviruses from primates; the other clade comprised equid herpesviruses and a hyena herpesvirus that branched separately from other viruses (Figure 2). Phylograms derived from gB and terminase gene segments, individually or concatenated, produced comparable results. GenBank accession numbers for all sequences from this study are EU17146–EU17156.

Bottom Line: Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy's zebras.The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager.Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Zoological Society of San Diego, Wildlife Disease Laboratories, Escondido, California 92027, USA. mschrenzel@sandiegozoo.org

ABSTRACT
Equine herpesvirus 9 was detected in a polar bear with progressive encephalitis; the source was traced to 2 members of a potential equid reservoir species, Grevy's zebras. The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. Thus, the natural host range is extended to 6 species in 3 mammalian orders.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus