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Breast cancer incidence following low-dose rate environmental exposure: Techa River Cohort, 1956-2004.

Ostroumova E, Preston DL, Ron E, Krestinina L, Davis FG, Kossenko M, Akleyev A - Br. J. Cancer (2008)

Bottom Line: Almost 10,000 women received estimated doses to the stomach of up to 0.47 Gray (Gy) (mean dose=0.04 Gy) from external gamma-exposure and (137)Cs incorporation.We have been following this population for cancer incidence and mortality and as in the general Russian population, we found a significant temporal trend of breast cancer incidence.We estimated that approximately 12% of the 109 observed cases could be attributed to radiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, MS 7238, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892-7238, USA. zhenia@urcrm.chel.su

ABSTRACT
In the 1950s, the Mayak nuclear weapons facility in Russia discharged liquid radioactive wastes into the Techa River causing exposure of riverside residents to protracted low-to-moderate doses of radiation. Almost 10,000 women received estimated doses to the stomach of up to 0.47 Gray (Gy) (mean dose=0.04 Gy) from external gamma-exposure and (137)Cs incorporation. We have been following this population for cancer incidence and mortality and as in the general Russian population, we found a significant temporal trend of breast cancer incidence. A significant linear radiation dose-response relationship was observed (P=0.01) with an estimated excess relative risk per Gray (ERR/Gy) of 5.00 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80, 12.76). We estimated that approximately 12% of the 109 observed cases could be attributed to radiation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Standardised Incidence Ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer for the Techa River female population compared with Russian general (open circles) and rural (black circles) female populations by follow-up period. Lines represent overall SIR estimate for the Techa River female population compared with Russian rural (upper, dot-dashed line) and Russian general (lower, dashed line) female populations. x axis – Follow-up year; y axis – SIR.
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fig1: Standardised Incidence Ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer for the Techa River female population compared with Russian general (open circles) and rural (black circles) female populations by follow-up period. Lines represent overall SIR estimate for the Techa River female population compared with Russian rural (upper, dot-dashed line) and Russian general (lower, dashed line) female populations. x axis – Follow-up year; y axis – SIR.

Mentions: Table 2 shows crude breast cancer incidence rates and adjusted relative risks by follow-up period. The crude rates increased with follow-up period primarily due to the aging of the cohort. The increase in baseline incidence rates prior to and after 50 years of age was proportional to the 6.8 and 1.1 power of age, respectively. After adjusting for attained age, we found a marked birth cohort effect (P<0.001) with rates increasing on average by 50% (95% CI: 28; 87%) per decade increase of birth year. Without allowing for possible radiation dose effects, the number of cases was 37% more than predicted national rates for rural areas (109 observed vs 79.6 expected, SIR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.13; 1.65). However, when compared with general female population rates the observed number of cases was 19% lower than expected (109 vs 135.3, SIR=0.81; 95% CI: 0.67; 0.97). Allowing for a linear dose–response, the baseline SIRs were somewhat lower, with estimates of 1.26 (rural) (95% CI: 1.01; 1.58) and 0.74 (general) (95% CI: 0.59; 0.93), respectively. Breast cancer SIRs based on Russian general and rural female population rates by follow-up period are presented in Figure 1.


Breast cancer incidence following low-dose rate environmental exposure: Techa River Cohort, 1956-2004.

Ostroumova E, Preston DL, Ron E, Krestinina L, Davis FG, Kossenko M, Akleyev A - Br. J. Cancer (2008)

Standardised Incidence Ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer for the Techa River female population compared with Russian general (open circles) and rural (black circles) female populations by follow-up period. Lines represent overall SIR estimate for the Techa River female population compared with Russian rural (upper, dot-dashed line) and Russian general (lower, dashed line) female populations. x axis – Follow-up year; y axis – SIR.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2600704&req=5

fig1: Standardised Incidence Ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer for the Techa River female population compared with Russian general (open circles) and rural (black circles) female populations by follow-up period. Lines represent overall SIR estimate for the Techa River female population compared with Russian rural (upper, dot-dashed line) and Russian general (lower, dashed line) female populations. x axis – Follow-up year; y axis – SIR.
Mentions: Table 2 shows crude breast cancer incidence rates and adjusted relative risks by follow-up period. The crude rates increased with follow-up period primarily due to the aging of the cohort. The increase in baseline incidence rates prior to and after 50 years of age was proportional to the 6.8 and 1.1 power of age, respectively. After adjusting for attained age, we found a marked birth cohort effect (P<0.001) with rates increasing on average by 50% (95% CI: 28; 87%) per decade increase of birth year. Without allowing for possible radiation dose effects, the number of cases was 37% more than predicted national rates for rural areas (109 observed vs 79.6 expected, SIR=1.37; 95% CI: 1.13; 1.65). However, when compared with general female population rates the observed number of cases was 19% lower than expected (109 vs 135.3, SIR=0.81; 95% CI: 0.67; 0.97). Allowing for a linear dose–response, the baseline SIRs were somewhat lower, with estimates of 1.26 (rural) (95% CI: 1.01; 1.58) and 0.74 (general) (95% CI: 0.59; 0.93), respectively. Breast cancer SIRs based on Russian general and rural female population rates by follow-up period are presented in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Almost 10,000 women received estimated doses to the stomach of up to 0.47 Gray (Gy) (mean dose=0.04 Gy) from external gamma-exposure and (137)Cs incorporation.We have been following this population for cancer incidence and mortality and as in the general Russian population, we found a significant temporal trend of breast cancer incidence.We estimated that approximately 12% of the 109 observed cases could be attributed to radiation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, MS 7238, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892-7238, USA. zhenia@urcrm.chel.su

ABSTRACT
In the 1950s, the Mayak nuclear weapons facility in Russia discharged liquid radioactive wastes into the Techa River causing exposure of riverside residents to protracted low-to-moderate doses of radiation. Almost 10,000 women received estimated doses to the stomach of up to 0.47 Gray (Gy) (mean dose=0.04 Gy) from external gamma-exposure and (137)Cs incorporation. We have been following this population for cancer incidence and mortality and as in the general Russian population, we found a significant temporal trend of breast cancer incidence. A significant linear radiation dose-response relationship was observed (P=0.01) with an estimated excess relative risk per Gray (ERR/Gy) of 5.00 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80, 12.76). We estimated that approximately 12% of the 109 observed cases could be attributed to radiation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus