Limits...
Radon and risk of extrapulmonary cancers: results of the German uranium miners' cohort study, 1960-2003.

Kreuzer M, Walsh L, Schnelzer M, Tschense A, Grosche B - Br. J. Cancer (2008)

Bottom Line: Internal Poisson regression was used to estimate the excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure to radon in working level months (WLM).Statistically significant increases in mortality were recorded for cancers of the stomach (O/E=1.15; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25) and liver (O/E=1.26; 95% CI: 1.07-1.48), whereas significant decreases were found for cancers of the tongue, mouth, salivary gland and pharynx combined (O/E=0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97) and those of the bladder (O/E=0.82; 95% CI: 0.70-0.95).Most sites showed positive exposure-response relationships, but these were insignificant or became insignificant after adjustment for potential confounders such as arsenic or dust exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. mkreuzer@bfs.de

ABSTRACT
Data from the German miners' cohort study were analysed to investigate whether radon in ambient air causes cancers other than lung cancer. The cohort includes 58,987 men who were employed for at least 6 months from 1946 to 1989 at the former Wismut uranium mining company in Eastern Germany. A total of 20,684 deaths were observed in the follow-up period from 1960 to 2003. The death rates for 24 individual cancer sites were compared with the age and calendar year-specific national death rates. Internal Poisson regression was used to estimate the excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure to radon in working level months (WLM). The number of deaths observed (O) for extrapulmonary cancers combined was close to that expected (E) from national rates (n=3340, O/E=1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-1.05). Statistically significant increases in mortality were recorded for cancers of the stomach (O/E=1.15; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25) and liver (O/E=1.26; 95% CI: 1.07-1.48), whereas significant decreases were found for cancers of the tongue, mouth, salivary gland and pharynx combined (O/E=0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97) and those of the bladder (O/E=0.82; 95% CI: 0.70-0.95). A statistically significant relationship with cumulative radon exposure was observed for all extrapulmonary cancers (ERR/WLM=0.014%; 95% CI: 0.006-0.023%). Most sites showed positive exposure-response relationships, but these were insignificant or became insignificant after adjustment for potential confounders such as arsenic or dust exposure. The present data provide some evidence of increased risk of extrapulmonary cancers associated with radon, but chance and confounding cannot be ruled out.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Excess relative risk (ERR) per 100 WLM and 95% confidence limits for all cancer sites with >35 cases and all cancers other than lung cancer combined, 1960–2003.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2600695&req=5

fig3: Excess relative risk (ERR) per 100 WLM and 95% confidence limits for all cancer sites with >35 cases and all cancers other than lung cancer combined, 1960–2003.

Mentions: Dosimetric calculations indicate that extrapulmonary organs received very low doses compared with those received by the lung (Kendall and Smith (2002); Marsh et al, 2008). Marsh et al (2008) recently estimated the absorbed doses for specific organs for several exposure scenarios in mines. For example, wet drilling, medium ventilation and medium physical activities were associated with the following doses in mGy/WLM: bronchial region 7.3, red bone marrow 0.031, kidney 0.02 and liver 0.0065. In our analyses, the ERR/WLM for lung cancer is approximately 14 times higher (n=2999; ERR/WLM=0.20%; 95% CI: 0.16–0.22%) than for non-lung cancers (n=3,340; ERR/WLM=0.014%), which is compatible with the biokinetic models. For individual sites, the majority showed a positive exposure–response relationship (15 from 18), although this was significant only for stomach cancer (Figure 3). After adjusting for the five potential confounders, however, no individual sites showed a significant exposure–response relationship.


Radon and risk of extrapulmonary cancers: results of the German uranium miners' cohort study, 1960-2003.

Kreuzer M, Walsh L, Schnelzer M, Tschense A, Grosche B - Br. J. Cancer (2008)

Excess relative risk (ERR) per 100 WLM and 95% confidence limits for all cancer sites with >35 cases and all cancers other than lung cancer combined, 1960–2003.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2600695&req=5

fig3: Excess relative risk (ERR) per 100 WLM and 95% confidence limits for all cancer sites with >35 cases and all cancers other than lung cancer combined, 1960–2003.
Mentions: Dosimetric calculations indicate that extrapulmonary organs received very low doses compared with those received by the lung (Kendall and Smith (2002); Marsh et al, 2008). Marsh et al (2008) recently estimated the absorbed doses for specific organs for several exposure scenarios in mines. For example, wet drilling, medium ventilation and medium physical activities were associated with the following doses in mGy/WLM: bronchial region 7.3, red bone marrow 0.031, kidney 0.02 and liver 0.0065. In our analyses, the ERR/WLM for lung cancer is approximately 14 times higher (n=2999; ERR/WLM=0.20%; 95% CI: 0.16–0.22%) than for non-lung cancers (n=3,340; ERR/WLM=0.014%), which is compatible with the biokinetic models. For individual sites, the majority showed a positive exposure–response relationship (15 from 18), although this was significant only for stomach cancer (Figure 3). After adjusting for the five potential confounders, however, no individual sites showed a significant exposure–response relationship.

Bottom Line: Internal Poisson regression was used to estimate the excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure to radon in working level months (WLM).Statistically significant increases in mortality were recorded for cancers of the stomach (O/E=1.15; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25) and liver (O/E=1.26; 95% CI: 1.07-1.48), whereas significant decreases were found for cancers of the tongue, mouth, salivary gland and pharynx combined (O/E=0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97) and those of the bladder (O/E=0.82; 95% CI: 0.70-0.95).Most sites showed positive exposure-response relationships, but these were insignificant or became insignificant after adjustment for potential confounders such as arsenic or dust exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg 85764, Germany. mkreuzer@bfs.de

ABSTRACT
Data from the German miners' cohort study were analysed to investigate whether radon in ambient air causes cancers other than lung cancer. The cohort includes 58,987 men who were employed for at least 6 months from 1946 to 1989 at the former Wismut uranium mining company in Eastern Germany. A total of 20,684 deaths were observed in the follow-up period from 1960 to 2003. The death rates for 24 individual cancer sites were compared with the age and calendar year-specific national death rates. Internal Poisson regression was used to estimate the excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure to radon in working level months (WLM). The number of deaths observed (O) for extrapulmonary cancers combined was close to that expected (E) from national rates (n=3340, O/E=1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-1.05). Statistically significant increases in mortality were recorded for cancers of the stomach (O/E=1.15; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25) and liver (O/E=1.26; 95% CI: 1.07-1.48), whereas significant decreases were found for cancers of the tongue, mouth, salivary gland and pharynx combined (O/E=0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.97) and those of the bladder (O/E=0.82; 95% CI: 0.70-0.95). A statistically significant relationship with cumulative radon exposure was observed for all extrapulmonary cancers (ERR/WLM=0.014%; 95% CI: 0.006-0.023%). Most sites showed positive exposure-response relationships, but these were insignificant or became insignificant after adjustment for potential confounders such as arsenic or dust exposure. The present data provide some evidence of increased risk of extrapulmonary cancers associated with radon, but chance and confounding cannot be ruled out.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus