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Hantavirus outbreak, Germany, 2007.

Hofmann J, Meisel H, Klempa B, Vesenbeckh SM, Beck R, Michel D, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Ulrich RG, Grund S, Enders G, Kruger DH - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

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Hantavirus disease (for review see ) has been reportable in Germany since 2001, according to the Federal Infection Protection Act... The few previously known human PUUV sequences from individual clinical case-patients in Germany, “Berkel” from Munsterland and “Heidelberg” from a region located between Swabian Jura and Spessart Forest, as well as human-derived strains from a small 2004 outbreak in the Bavarian Forest, were included in this analysis... The results showed a clustering of the new viral sequences strictly according to residential areas of the patients, forming the following 4 clades: Swabian Jura (SJ), Spessart Forest (SF), Munsterland (ML), and Bavarian Forest (BF)... Most sequences in this study were obtained from Swabian Jura, the region with the highest illness rate of the outbreak (incidence 32.9/100,000)... The Swabian Jura was previously identified as a hantavirus-endemic area characterized by higher seroprevalence rates in the population compared with the rest of Germany... Within the BF clade, the diversity is up to 4%... However, between the 4 phylogenetic clades mentioned above (SJ, SF, ML, and BF), a sequence variability of 12%–18% was found... Sequence comparisons showed a tight correlation between human- and rodent-derived PUUV sequences obtained from the same regional provenance (nucleotide identity >98%) and high variability of sequences originating from different geographic regions (nucleotide identity ≈85%)... For more detailed studies, analysis of the complete S and M sequences of the virus strains will be necessary... Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a high variability among the German PUUV strains but a strong clustering of viral sequences of human and rodent origin in the same geographic region... The diversity of the PUUV clusters suggests their separate evolutionary history in the different regions of Germany... In contrast, within these particular geographic areas, only slight sequence differences were found in longitudinal analysis over several years... This conclusion is supported by the novel human Waldkirchen sequence (H72), which is almost identical to the BF strains from 2004 and the similarity of newly derived human sequences from Munsterland (H208, H303) to the Berkel strain from 1994.

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A) Map of Germany showing origins of viral sequences from the 2007 outbreak. H, sequences of human origin; M, sequences of rodent origin (Myodes glareolus). Dotted circles mark the outbreak regions characterized by particular virus sequence clusters; SJ, Swabian Jura; BF, Bavarian Forest; SF, Spessart Forest; ML, Munsterland. B) Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree (TN93 evolutionary model) of European Puumala virus (PUUV) strains based on partial sequences of the S segment (557 nt, position 385–941). Bootstrap values >70%, calculated from 10,000 replicates, are shown at the tree branches. PUUV-like sequences from Japan (JPN) were used as an outgroup. Sequences taken from GenBank are indicated by their accession numbers. New sequences from this study are given in boldface. Accession numbers of new sequences are H101, EU266757; H233, EU266758; H99, EU266759; M42, EU085563; M50, EU085565 ; H145, EU266760; H85, EU266761; M4, EU266762; H81, EU266763; H232, EU266764; H231, EU266765; M13, EU085558; H72, EU266766; H290, EU266767; M104, EU246963; H127, EU266768; M837, EU266769; H208, EU266770; H303, EU266771; H68, EU266772. For clarity, previously characterized PUUV clades from other parts of Europe are shown in simplified form. However, the complete dataset of PUUV sequences as presented by Schilling et al. (6) was used to calculate the tree. Previously defined lineages are indicated by abbreviated names: AUT, Austrian; BAL, Balkan; BALT, Baltic; DAN, Danish; FIN, Finnish; NSCA, North Scandinavian; OMSK, Russian from Omsk region; RUS, Russian; SSCA, South Scandinavian. Scale bar indicates an evolutionary distance of 0.1 substitutions per position.
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Figure 1: A) Map of Germany showing origins of viral sequences from the 2007 outbreak. H, sequences of human origin; M, sequences of rodent origin (Myodes glareolus). Dotted circles mark the outbreak regions characterized by particular virus sequence clusters; SJ, Swabian Jura; BF, Bavarian Forest; SF, Spessart Forest; ML, Munsterland. B) Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree (TN93 evolutionary model) of European Puumala virus (PUUV) strains based on partial sequences of the S segment (557 nt, position 385–941). Bootstrap values >70%, calculated from 10,000 replicates, are shown at the tree branches. PUUV-like sequences from Japan (JPN) were used as an outgroup. Sequences taken from GenBank are indicated by their accession numbers. New sequences from this study are given in boldface. Accession numbers of new sequences are H101, EU266757; H233, EU266758; H99, EU266759; M42, EU085563; M50, EU085565 ; H145, EU266760; H85, EU266761; M4, EU266762; H81, EU266763; H232, EU266764; H231, EU266765; M13, EU085558; H72, EU266766; H290, EU266767; M104, EU246963; H127, EU266768; M837, EU266769; H208, EU266770; H303, EU266771; H68, EU266772. For clarity, previously characterized PUUV clades from other parts of Europe are shown in simplified form. However, the complete dataset of PUUV sequences as presented by Schilling et al. (6) was used to calculate the tree. Previously defined lineages are indicated by abbreviated names: AUT, Austrian; BAL, Balkan; BALT, Baltic; DAN, Danish; FIN, Finnish; NSCA, North Scandinavian; OMSK, Russian from Omsk region; RUS, Russian; SSCA, South Scandinavian. Scale bar indicates an evolutionary distance of 0.1 substitutions per position.

Mentions: The Figure, panel A, shows a map of Germany with the residences of those patients from whom virus sequences were amplified (marked by letter H in front of the specimen number). In the phylogenetic analysis, despite a substantial evolutionary distance to PUUV strains from other parts of Europe, the virus sequences unambiguously grouped within the PUUV species (Figure, panel B). The few previously known human PUUV sequences from individual clinical case-patients in Germany, “Berkel” from Munsterland (7) and “Heidelberg” from a region located between Swabian Jura and Spessart Forest (8), as well as human-derived strains from a small 2004 outbreak in the Bavarian Forest (6), were included in this analysis. The results showed a clustering of the new viral sequences strictly according to residential areas of the patients, forming the following 4 clades: Swabian Jura (SJ), Spessart Forest (SF), Munsterland (ML), and Bavarian Forest (BF). Two different single sequences, Karlsruhe (from a region in northwestern Swabian Jura) and Essen (in southern Munsterland), represent 2 putative additional lineages.


Hantavirus outbreak, Germany, 2007.

Hofmann J, Meisel H, Klempa B, Vesenbeckh SM, Beck R, Michel D, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Ulrich RG, Grund S, Enders G, Kruger DH - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

A) Map of Germany showing origins of viral sequences from the 2007 outbreak. H, sequences of human origin; M, sequences of rodent origin (Myodes glareolus). Dotted circles mark the outbreak regions characterized by particular virus sequence clusters; SJ, Swabian Jura; BF, Bavarian Forest; SF, Spessart Forest; ML, Munsterland. B) Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree (TN93 evolutionary model) of European Puumala virus (PUUV) strains based on partial sequences of the S segment (557 nt, position 385–941). Bootstrap values >70%, calculated from 10,000 replicates, are shown at the tree branches. PUUV-like sequences from Japan (JPN) were used as an outgroup. Sequences taken from GenBank are indicated by their accession numbers. New sequences from this study are given in boldface. Accession numbers of new sequences are H101, EU266757; H233, EU266758; H99, EU266759; M42, EU085563; M50, EU085565 ; H145, EU266760; H85, EU266761; M4, EU266762; H81, EU266763; H232, EU266764; H231, EU266765; M13, EU085558; H72, EU266766; H290, EU266767; M104, EU246963; H127, EU266768; M837, EU266769; H208, EU266770; H303, EU266771; H68, EU266772. For clarity, previously characterized PUUV clades from other parts of Europe are shown in simplified form. However, the complete dataset of PUUV sequences as presented by Schilling et al. (6) was used to calculate the tree. Previously defined lineages are indicated by abbreviated names: AUT, Austrian; BAL, Balkan; BALT, Baltic; DAN, Danish; FIN, Finnish; NSCA, North Scandinavian; OMSK, Russian from Omsk region; RUS, Russian; SSCA, South Scandinavian. Scale bar indicates an evolutionary distance of 0.1 substitutions per position.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 1: A) Map of Germany showing origins of viral sequences from the 2007 outbreak. H, sequences of human origin; M, sequences of rodent origin (Myodes glareolus). Dotted circles mark the outbreak regions characterized by particular virus sequence clusters; SJ, Swabian Jura; BF, Bavarian Forest; SF, Spessart Forest; ML, Munsterland. B) Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree (TN93 evolutionary model) of European Puumala virus (PUUV) strains based on partial sequences of the S segment (557 nt, position 385–941). Bootstrap values >70%, calculated from 10,000 replicates, are shown at the tree branches. PUUV-like sequences from Japan (JPN) were used as an outgroup. Sequences taken from GenBank are indicated by their accession numbers. New sequences from this study are given in boldface. Accession numbers of new sequences are H101, EU266757; H233, EU266758; H99, EU266759; M42, EU085563; M50, EU085565 ; H145, EU266760; H85, EU266761; M4, EU266762; H81, EU266763; H232, EU266764; H231, EU266765; M13, EU085558; H72, EU266766; H290, EU266767; M104, EU246963; H127, EU266768; M837, EU266769; H208, EU266770; H303, EU266771; H68, EU266772. For clarity, previously characterized PUUV clades from other parts of Europe are shown in simplified form. However, the complete dataset of PUUV sequences as presented by Schilling et al. (6) was used to calculate the tree. Previously defined lineages are indicated by abbreviated names: AUT, Austrian; BAL, Balkan; BALT, Baltic; DAN, Danish; FIN, Finnish; NSCA, North Scandinavian; OMSK, Russian from Omsk region; RUS, Russian; SSCA, South Scandinavian. Scale bar indicates an evolutionary distance of 0.1 substitutions per position.
Mentions: The Figure, panel A, shows a map of Germany with the residences of those patients from whom virus sequences were amplified (marked by letter H in front of the specimen number). In the phylogenetic analysis, despite a substantial evolutionary distance to PUUV strains from other parts of Europe, the virus sequences unambiguously grouped within the PUUV species (Figure, panel B). The few previously known human PUUV sequences from individual clinical case-patients in Germany, “Berkel” from Munsterland (7) and “Heidelberg” from a region located between Swabian Jura and Spessart Forest (8), as well as human-derived strains from a small 2004 outbreak in the Bavarian Forest (6), were included in this analysis. The results showed a clustering of the new viral sequences strictly according to residential areas of the patients, forming the following 4 clades: Swabian Jura (SJ), Spessart Forest (SF), Munsterland (ML), and Bavarian Forest (BF). Two different single sequences, Karlsruhe (from a region in northwestern Swabian Jura) and Essen (in southern Munsterland), represent 2 putative additional lineages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Hantavirus disease (for review see ) has been reportable in Germany since 2001, according to the Federal Infection Protection Act... The few previously known human PUUV sequences from individual clinical case-patients in Germany, “Berkel” from Munsterland and “Heidelberg” from a region located between Swabian Jura and Spessart Forest, as well as human-derived strains from a small 2004 outbreak in the Bavarian Forest, were included in this analysis... The results showed a clustering of the new viral sequences strictly according to residential areas of the patients, forming the following 4 clades: Swabian Jura (SJ), Spessart Forest (SF), Munsterland (ML), and Bavarian Forest (BF)... Most sequences in this study were obtained from Swabian Jura, the region with the highest illness rate of the outbreak (incidence 32.9/100,000)... The Swabian Jura was previously identified as a hantavirus-endemic area characterized by higher seroprevalence rates in the population compared with the rest of Germany... Within the BF clade, the diversity is up to 4%... However, between the 4 phylogenetic clades mentioned above (SJ, SF, ML, and BF), a sequence variability of 12%–18% was found... Sequence comparisons showed a tight correlation between human- and rodent-derived PUUV sequences obtained from the same regional provenance (nucleotide identity >98%) and high variability of sequences originating from different geographic regions (nucleotide identity ≈85%)... For more detailed studies, analysis of the complete S and M sequences of the virus strains will be necessary... Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a high variability among the German PUUV strains but a strong clustering of viral sequences of human and rodent origin in the same geographic region... The diversity of the PUUV clusters suggests their separate evolutionary history in the different regions of Germany... In contrast, within these particular geographic areas, only slight sequence differences were found in longitudinal analysis over several years... This conclusion is supported by the novel human Waldkirchen sequence (H72), which is almost identical to the BF strains from 2004 and the similarity of newly derived human sequences from Munsterland (H208, H303) to the Berkel strain from 1994.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus