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Emergence of polycystic neotropical echinococcosis.

Tappe D, Stich A, Frosch M - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972.Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species.To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. dtappe@hygiene.uni-wuerzburg.de

ABSTRACT
Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasite's life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries.

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The paca, Cuniculus paca, the natural intermediate host for Echinococcus vogeli and rarely E. oligarthrus. Drawing by Robert Kretschmer (1818–1872).
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Figure 4: The paca, Cuniculus paca, the natural intermediate host for Echinococcus vogeli and rarely E. oligarthrus. Drawing by Robert Kretschmer (1818–1872).

Mentions: Rausch and Bernstein predicted, on the basis of the known predator-prey relationship of the bush dog, that the larval stage of E. vogeli would also occur in rodents, including pacas (28). Indeed, parasitic cysts were found in a Colombian paca (Cuniculus paca, Figure 4) in 1975. The material was experimentally fed to a dog; in addition, larvae obtained from a Colombian human patient with PE (37) were given to a second canid. From both dogs, the strobilar stage of E. vogeli was later recovered (30). As sufficient material was collected from the field in Colombia and obtained from experimentally infected animals, R.L. Rausch, V.R. Rausch, and A. D’Alessandro were able to morphologically distinguish E. vogeli from E. oligarthrus. The rostellar hooks of each of the 2 South American species were found to consistently differ in length and form, which permitted discrimination of the tapeworms’ larval stages. As a consequence, known human and animal cases of PE were reexamined, and some cases thought to have been caused by E. oligarthrus were shown to have been caused by E. vogeli instead (32). E. vogeli typically has a thick laminated outer layer and a thin inner germinal layer, whereas E. oligarthrus has the reverse. Calcareous corpuscles are abundant in the germinal layer and in the protoscolices of E. oligarthrus but are almost absent in E. vogeli (33).


Emergence of polycystic neotropical echinococcosis.

Tappe D, Stich A, Frosch M - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

The paca, Cuniculus paca, the natural intermediate host for Echinococcus vogeli and rarely E. oligarthrus. Drawing by Robert Kretschmer (1818–1872).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2600197&req=5

Figure 4: The paca, Cuniculus paca, the natural intermediate host for Echinococcus vogeli and rarely E. oligarthrus. Drawing by Robert Kretschmer (1818–1872).
Mentions: Rausch and Bernstein predicted, on the basis of the known predator-prey relationship of the bush dog, that the larval stage of E. vogeli would also occur in rodents, including pacas (28). Indeed, parasitic cysts were found in a Colombian paca (Cuniculus paca, Figure 4) in 1975. The material was experimentally fed to a dog; in addition, larvae obtained from a Colombian human patient with PE (37) were given to a second canid. From both dogs, the strobilar stage of E. vogeli was later recovered (30). As sufficient material was collected from the field in Colombia and obtained from experimentally infected animals, R.L. Rausch, V.R. Rausch, and A. D’Alessandro were able to morphologically distinguish E. vogeli from E. oligarthrus. The rostellar hooks of each of the 2 South American species were found to consistently differ in length and form, which permitted discrimination of the tapeworms’ larval stages. As a consequence, known human and animal cases of PE were reexamined, and some cases thought to have been caused by E. oligarthrus were shown to have been caused by E. vogeli instead (32). E. vogeli typically has a thick laminated outer layer and a thin inner germinal layer, whereas E. oligarthrus has the reverse. Calcareous corpuscles are abundant in the germinal layer and in the protoscolices of E. oligarthrus but are almost absent in E. vogeli (33).

Bottom Line: A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972.Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species.To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. dtappe@hygiene.uni-wuerzburg.de

ABSTRACT
Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasite's life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus