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Experimental infection of swans and geese with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) of Asian lineage.

Brown JD, Stallknecht DE, Swayne DE - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contribution to the spread of the responsible viruses in Eurasia and Africa are unclear.The highest mortality rates were observed in swans, and species-related differences in clinical illness and viral shedding were evident.These results suggest that the potential for HPAI (H5N1) viral shedding and the movement of infected birds may be species-dependent and can help explain observed deaths associated with HPAI (H5N1) infection in anseriforms in Eurasia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. jbrown@vet.uga.edu

ABSTRACT
The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contribution to the spread of the responsible viruses in Eurasia and Africa are unclear. To better understand the potential role of swans and geese in the epidemiology of this virus, we infected 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese with an HPAI virus of Asian lineage recovered from a whooper swan in Mongolia in 2005, A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/2005 (H5N1). The highest mortality rates were observed in swans, and species-related differences in clinical illness and viral shedding were evident. These results suggest that the potential for HPAI (H5N1) viral shedding and the movement of infected birds may be species-dependent and can help explain observed deaths associated with HPAI (H5N1) infection in anseriforms in Eurasia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The average concentration of viral shedding in oropharyngeal (A), cloacal (B), and combined (C) routes before (pre) and after (post) the onset of clinical signs in 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by intranasal inoculation or contact with infected birds. Viral concentrations were determined by adding viral titers before and after the onset of clinical signs for each individual bird and then using these values to calculate a pre- and postclinical average for each species. The single bar-headed goose that did not shed detectable concentrations of virus in the feces was included in the calculation of the averages for this species. EID50, median embryo infectious dose; BS, black swans; TS, trumpeter swans; WS, whooper swans; MS, mute swans; BHG, bar-headed geese; CG, cackling geese.
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Figure 2: The average concentration of viral shedding in oropharyngeal (A), cloacal (B), and combined (C) routes before (pre) and after (post) the onset of clinical signs in 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by intranasal inoculation or contact with infected birds. Viral concentrations were determined by adding viral titers before and after the onset of clinical signs for each individual bird and then using these values to calculate a pre- and postclinical average for each species. The single bar-headed goose that did not shed detectable concentrations of virus in the feces was included in the calculation of the averages for this species. EID50, median embryo infectious dose; BS, black swans; TS, trumpeter swans; WS, whooper swans; MS, mute swans; BHG, bar-headed geese; CG, cackling geese.

Mentions: During the outbreaks of HPAI (H5N1) of Asian lineage in Europe in 2005–2006, certain duck and swan species were overrepresented in the mortality reports (5). Although field data from the outbreaks indicated that these waterfowl species were susceptible, their contribution to the spread of HPAI virus (H5N1) is not clear. In general, asymptomatic birds can shed virus before the onset of illness or after clinical signs have resolved. In this study, all 6 waterfowl species shed virus before the onset of clinical signs, though species-related differences were apparent (Figure 2). Some geese of both species survived infection, but none of the surviving birds actively shed detectable virus after clinical signs resolved.


Experimental infection of swans and geese with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) of Asian lineage.

Brown JD, Stallknecht DE, Swayne DE - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

The average concentration of viral shedding in oropharyngeal (A), cloacal (B), and combined (C) routes before (pre) and after (post) the onset of clinical signs in 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by intranasal inoculation or contact with infected birds. Viral concentrations were determined by adding viral titers before and after the onset of clinical signs for each individual bird and then using these values to calculate a pre- and postclinical average for each species. The single bar-headed goose that did not shed detectable concentrations of virus in the feces was included in the calculation of the averages for this species. EID50, median embryo infectious dose; BS, black swans; TS, trumpeter swans; WS, whooper swans; MS, mute swans; BHG, bar-headed geese; CG, cackling geese.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2600149&req=5

Figure 2: The average concentration of viral shedding in oropharyngeal (A), cloacal (B), and combined (C) routes before (pre) and after (post) the onset of clinical signs in 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by intranasal inoculation or contact with infected birds. Viral concentrations were determined by adding viral titers before and after the onset of clinical signs for each individual bird and then using these values to calculate a pre- and postclinical average for each species. The single bar-headed goose that did not shed detectable concentrations of virus in the feces was included in the calculation of the averages for this species. EID50, median embryo infectious dose; BS, black swans; TS, trumpeter swans; WS, whooper swans; MS, mute swans; BHG, bar-headed geese; CG, cackling geese.
Mentions: During the outbreaks of HPAI (H5N1) of Asian lineage in Europe in 2005–2006, certain duck and swan species were overrepresented in the mortality reports (5). Although field data from the outbreaks indicated that these waterfowl species were susceptible, their contribution to the spread of HPAI virus (H5N1) is not clear. In general, asymptomatic birds can shed virus before the onset of illness or after clinical signs have resolved. In this study, all 6 waterfowl species shed virus before the onset of clinical signs, though species-related differences were apparent (Figure 2). Some geese of both species survived infection, but none of the surviving birds actively shed detectable virus after clinical signs resolved.

Bottom Line: The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contribution to the spread of the responsible viruses in Eurasia and Africa are unclear.The highest mortality rates were observed in swans, and species-related differences in clinical illness and viral shedding were evident.These results suggest that the potential for HPAI (H5N1) viral shedding and the movement of infected birds may be species-dependent and can help explain observed deaths associated with HPAI (H5N1) infection in anseriforms in Eurasia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. jbrown@vet.uga.edu

ABSTRACT
The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contribution to the spread of the responsible viruses in Eurasia and Africa are unclear. To better understand the potential role of swans and geese in the epidemiology of this virus, we infected 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese with an HPAI virus of Asian lineage recovered from a whooper swan in Mongolia in 2005, A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/2005 (H5N1). The highest mortality rates were observed in swans, and species-related differences in clinical illness and viral shedding were evident. These results suggest that the potential for HPAI (H5N1) viral shedding and the movement of infected birds may be species-dependent and can help explain observed deaths associated with HPAI (H5N1) infection in anseriforms in Eurasia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus