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High genetic diversity of measles virus, World Health Organization European Region, 2005-2006.

Kremer JR, Brown KE, Jin L, Santibanez S, Shulga SV, Aboudy Y, Demchyshyna IV, Djemileva S, Echevarria JE, Featherstone DF, Hukic M, Johansen K, Litwinska B, Lopareva E, Lupulescu E, Mentis A, Mihneva Z, Mosquera MM, Muscat M, Naumova MA, Nedeljkovic J, Nekrasova LS, Magurano F, Fortuna C, de Andrade HR, Richard JL, Robo A, Rota PA, Samoilovich EO, Sarv I, Semeiko GV, Shugayev N, Utegenova ES, van Binnendijk R, Vinner L, Waku-Kouomou D, Wild TF, Brown DW, Mankertz A, Muller CP, Mulders MN - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents.The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination.Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Laboratoire National de Santé-Immunology 20A, rue Auguste Lumiere, Luxembourg, Luxembourg. jacques.kremer@lns.etat.lu

ABSTRACT
During 2005-2006, nine measles virus (MV) genotypes were identified throughout the World Health Organization European Region. All major epidemics were associated with genotypes D4, D6, and B3. Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents. The genetic diversity of endemic D6 strains was low; genotypes C2 and D7, circulating in Europe until recent years, were no longer identified. The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination. However, multiple importations from Africa and Asia and virus introduction into highly mobile and unvaccinated communities caused a massive spread of D4 and B3 strains throughout much of the region. Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Four different genetic groups of genotype D4 identified in Europe during 2005–2006 and their closest relatives (in italics) identified on other continents. Tree calculation and measles virus nomenclature are as delineated in Figure 1.
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Figure 3: Four different genetic groups of genotype D4 identified in Europe during 2005–2006 and their closest relatives (in italics) identified on other continents. Tree calculation and measles virus nomenclature are as delineated in Figure 1.

Mentions: In contrast to the relative genetic homogeneity of D6 viruses, at least 4 distinct genetic groups of genotype D4 were identified in Europe during 2005–2006 (Figure 3). The maximum genetic distance was 24 nt (5.3%), and the minimum distance between 2 groups was 11 nt (2.4%).


High genetic diversity of measles virus, World Health Organization European Region, 2005-2006.

Kremer JR, Brown KE, Jin L, Santibanez S, Shulga SV, Aboudy Y, Demchyshyna IV, Djemileva S, Echevarria JE, Featherstone DF, Hukic M, Johansen K, Litwinska B, Lopareva E, Lupulescu E, Mentis A, Mihneva Z, Mosquera MM, Muscat M, Naumova MA, Nedeljkovic J, Nekrasova LS, Magurano F, Fortuna C, de Andrade HR, Richard JL, Robo A, Rota PA, Samoilovich EO, Sarv I, Semeiko GV, Shugayev N, Utegenova ES, van Binnendijk R, Vinner L, Waku-Kouomou D, Wild TF, Brown DW, Mankertz A, Muller CP, Mulders MN - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Four different genetic groups of genotype D4 identified in Europe during 2005–2006 and their closest relatives (in italics) identified on other continents. Tree calculation and measles virus nomenclature are as delineated in Figure 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2600148&req=5

Figure 3: Four different genetic groups of genotype D4 identified in Europe during 2005–2006 and their closest relatives (in italics) identified on other continents. Tree calculation and measles virus nomenclature are as delineated in Figure 1.
Mentions: In contrast to the relative genetic homogeneity of D6 viruses, at least 4 distinct genetic groups of genotype D4 were identified in Europe during 2005–2006 (Figure 3). The maximum genetic distance was 24 nt (5.3%), and the minimum distance between 2 groups was 11 nt (2.4%).

Bottom Line: Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents.The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination.Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Laboratoire National de Santé-Immunology 20A, rue Auguste Lumiere, Luxembourg, Luxembourg. jacques.kremer@lns.etat.lu

ABSTRACT
During 2005-2006, nine measles virus (MV) genotypes were identified throughout the World Health Organization European Region. All major epidemics were associated with genotypes D4, D6, and B3. Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents. The genetic diversity of endemic D6 strains was low; genotypes C2 and D7, circulating in Europe until recent years, were no longer identified. The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination. However, multiple importations from Africa and Asia and virus introduction into highly mobile and unvaccinated communities caused a massive spread of D4 and B3 strains throughout much of the region. Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus