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High genetic diversity of measles virus, World Health Organization European Region, 2005-2006.

Kremer JR, Brown KE, Jin L, Santibanez S, Shulga SV, Aboudy Y, Demchyshyna IV, Djemileva S, Echevarria JE, Featherstone DF, Hukic M, Johansen K, Litwinska B, Lopareva E, Lupulescu E, Mentis A, Mihneva Z, Mosquera MM, Muscat M, Naumova MA, Nedeljkovic J, Nekrasova LS, Magurano F, Fortuna C, de Andrade HR, Richard JL, Robo A, Rota PA, Samoilovich EO, Sarv I, Semeiko GV, Shugayev N, Utegenova ES, van Binnendijk R, Vinner L, Waku-Kouomou D, Wild TF, Brown DW, Mankertz A, Muller CP, Mulders MN - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents.The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination.Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Laboratoire National de Santé-Immunology 20A, rue Auguste Lumiere, Luxembourg, Luxembourg. jacques.kremer@lns.etat.lu

ABSTRACT
During 2005-2006, nine measles virus (MV) genotypes were identified throughout the World Health Organization European Region. All major epidemics were associated with genotypes D4, D6, and B3. Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents. The genetic diversity of endemic D6 strains was low; genotypes C2 and D7, circulating in Europe until recent years, were no longer identified. The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination. However, multiple importations from Africa and Asia and virus introduction into highly mobile and unvaccinated communities caused a massive spread of D4 and B3 strains throughout much of the region. Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities.

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Phylogenetic tree showing representative genotype D6 strains identified in Europe before 2005, strains exported from Europe to other continents (source of exportation is shown in brackets), and the D6 variants that were dominant in Europe during 2005 (D6–2000) and 2006 (D6–2005). The phylogenetic tree was calculated on the basis of the 450 nt that code for the C-terminus of the MV N protein, by using MEGA 3.1 software and the neighbor-joining method (500 bootstraps). Genetic distances are represented as numbers of nucleotide differences between strains. Measles virus strains were named according to World Health Organization nomenclature: MVi/City of isolation.Country/epidemiologic week.year of isolation(/isolate number). Sequences obtained from RNA extracted from isolates (MVi) or clinical material (MVs) were distinguished. GenBank accession numbers are also shown for each strain.
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Figure 1: Phylogenetic tree showing representative genotype D6 strains identified in Europe before 2005, strains exported from Europe to other continents (source of exportation is shown in brackets), and the D6 variants that were dominant in Europe during 2005 (D6–2000) and 2006 (D6–2005). The phylogenetic tree was calculated on the basis of the 450 nt that code for the C-terminus of the MV N protein, by using MEGA 3.1 software and the neighbor-joining method (500 bootstraps). Genetic distances are represented as numbers of nucleotide differences between strains. Measles virus strains were named according to World Health Organization nomenclature: MVi/City of isolation.Country/epidemiologic week.year of isolation(/isolate number). Sequences obtained from RNA extracted from isolates (MVi) or clinical material (MVs) were distinguished. GenBank accession numbers are also shown for each strain.

Mentions: The pattern of measles virus (MV) genotypes, in combination with epidemiologic investigation, contributes to understanding measles transmission and helps distinguish between continuous circulation and importation and limited transmission of the viruses in a certain region (2,3). Genotype C2 has been continuously detected in the European Region since the early 1970s and is therefore considered to be the indigenous genotype of Europe (4,5). D6 viruses have been regularly reported from different countries of the European Region since the early 1990s (4–12), and genotype D6–associated outbreaks or sporadic cases on other continents were mostly due to MV importations from Europe (13–15) (Figure 1). These observations thus provide overwhelming evidence for the endemic circulation of genotype D6 in Europe at least during the past 15 years. Measles cases in the European Region associated with other genotypes were mostly due to virus importation from other continents


High genetic diversity of measles virus, World Health Organization European Region, 2005-2006.

Kremer JR, Brown KE, Jin L, Santibanez S, Shulga SV, Aboudy Y, Demchyshyna IV, Djemileva S, Echevarria JE, Featherstone DF, Hukic M, Johansen K, Litwinska B, Lopareva E, Lupulescu E, Mentis A, Mihneva Z, Mosquera MM, Muscat M, Naumova MA, Nedeljkovic J, Nekrasova LS, Magurano F, Fortuna C, de Andrade HR, Richard JL, Robo A, Rota PA, Samoilovich EO, Sarv I, Semeiko GV, Shugayev N, Utegenova ES, van Binnendijk R, Vinner L, Waku-Kouomou D, Wild TF, Brown DW, Mankertz A, Muller CP, Mulders MN - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Phylogenetic tree showing representative genotype D6 strains identified in Europe before 2005, strains exported from Europe to other continents (source of exportation is shown in brackets), and the D6 variants that were dominant in Europe during 2005 (D6–2000) and 2006 (D6–2005). The phylogenetic tree was calculated on the basis of the 450 nt that code for the C-terminus of the MV N protein, by using MEGA 3.1 software and the neighbor-joining method (500 bootstraps). Genetic distances are represented as numbers of nucleotide differences between strains. Measles virus strains were named according to World Health Organization nomenclature: MVi/City of isolation.Country/epidemiologic week.year of isolation(/isolate number). Sequences obtained from RNA extracted from isolates (MVi) or clinical material (MVs) were distinguished. GenBank accession numbers are also shown for each strain.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2600148&req=5

Figure 1: Phylogenetic tree showing representative genotype D6 strains identified in Europe before 2005, strains exported from Europe to other continents (source of exportation is shown in brackets), and the D6 variants that were dominant in Europe during 2005 (D6–2000) and 2006 (D6–2005). The phylogenetic tree was calculated on the basis of the 450 nt that code for the C-terminus of the MV N protein, by using MEGA 3.1 software and the neighbor-joining method (500 bootstraps). Genetic distances are represented as numbers of nucleotide differences between strains. Measles virus strains were named according to World Health Organization nomenclature: MVi/City of isolation.Country/epidemiologic week.year of isolation(/isolate number). Sequences obtained from RNA extracted from isolates (MVi) or clinical material (MVs) were distinguished. GenBank accession numbers are also shown for each strain.
Mentions: The pattern of measles virus (MV) genotypes, in combination with epidemiologic investigation, contributes to understanding measles transmission and helps distinguish between continuous circulation and importation and limited transmission of the viruses in a certain region (2,3). Genotype C2 has been continuously detected in the European Region since the early 1970s and is therefore considered to be the indigenous genotype of Europe (4,5). D6 viruses have been regularly reported from different countries of the European Region since the early 1990s (4–12), and genotype D6–associated outbreaks or sporadic cases on other continents were mostly due to MV importations from Europe (13–15) (Figure 1). These observations thus provide overwhelming evidence for the endemic circulation of genotype D6 in Europe at least during the past 15 years. Measles cases in the European Region associated with other genotypes were mostly due to virus importation from other continents

Bottom Line: Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents.The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination.Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Laboratoire National de Santé-Immunology 20A, rue Auguste Lumiere, Luxembourg, Luxembourg. jacques.kremer@lns.etat.lu

ABSTRACT
During 2005-2006, nine measles virus (MV) genotypes were identified throughout the World Health Organization European Region. All major epidemics were associated with genotypes D4, D6, and B3. Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents. The genetic diversity of endemic D6 strains was low; genotypes C2 and D7, circulating in Europe until recent years, were no longer identified. The transmission chains of several indigenous MV strains may thus have been interrupted by enhanced vaccination. However, multiple importations from Africa and Asia and virus introduction into highly mobile and unvaccinated communities caused a massive spread of D4 and B3 strains throughout much of the region. Thus, despite the reduction of endemic MV circulation, importation of MV from other continents caused prolonged circulation and large outbreaks after their introduction into unvaccinated and highly mobile communities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus