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Sindbis virus infection in resident birds, migratory birds, and humans, Finland.

Kurkela S, Rätti O, Huhtamo E, Uzcátegui NY, Nuorti JP, Laakkonen J, Manni T, Helle P, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: SINV antibodies were first found in 3 birds (red-backed shrike, robin, song thrush) during their spring migration to northern Europe.Among 2,529 persons, the age-standardized seroprevalence (1999-2003) was 5.2%; seroprevalence and incidence (1995-2003) were highest in North Karelia (eastern Finland).Grouse may contribute to the epidemiology of SINV in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Haartman Institute at the University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, Helsinki, Finland. satu.kurkela@helsinki.fi

ABSTRACT
Sindbis virus (SINV), a mosquito-borne virus that causes rash and arthritis, has been causing outbreaks in humans every seventh year in northern Europe. To gain a better understanding of SINV epidemiology in Finland, we searched for SINV antibodies in 621 resident grouse, whose population declines have coincided with human SINV outbreaks, and in 836 migratory birds. We used hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests for the bird samples and enzyme immunoassays and hemagglutination-inhibition for the human samples. SINV antibodies were first found in 3 birds (red-backed shrike, robin, song thrush) during their spring migration to northern Europe. Of the grouse, 27.4% were seropositive in 2003 (1 year after a human outbreak), but only 1.4% were seropositive in 2004. Among 2,529 persons, the age-standardized seroprevalence (1999-2003) was 5.2%; seroprevalence and incidence (1995-2003) were highest in North Karelia (eastern Finland). Grouse may contribute to the epidemiology of SINV in humans.

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A) Map of Finland with the hospital district divisions. Migratory bird samples were collected from Lågskär, Tauvo, Jurmo, and Kokkola. B) Mean seroprevalence (1999–2003) of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. N/A, not available. C) Average annualized incidence (1995–2003) of SINV infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. D) Prevalence of SINV hemagluttination-inhibition antibodies in resident grouse in Finland. The left bars represent the year 2003 and right bars 2004. The bars represent the total number of samples available; the black areas, the number of seropositive samples. *In 2003 in East Savo, the only sample collected was seropositive.
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Figure 1: A) Map of Finland with the hospital district divisions. Migratory bird samples were collected from Lågskär, Tauvo, Jurmo, and Kokkola. B) Mean seroprevalence (1999–2003) of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. N/A, not available. C) Average annualized incidence (1995–2003) of SINV infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. D) Prevalence of SINV hemagluttination-inhibition antibodies in resident grouse in Finland. The left bars represent the year 2003 and right bars 2004. The bars represent the total number of samples available; the black areas, the number of seropositive samples. *In 2003 in East Savo, the only sample collected was seropositive.

Mentions: In 2004, blood samples were collected from migratory birds in 2 bird observatories during their spring migration: on Jurmo Island (59°50′N, 21°36′E) on May 18 and 19 and in Tauvo (64°49′N, 24°37′E) May 24–27. In 2005, blood samples were also collected in 2 different bird observatories during the spring migration: on Lågskär Island (59°50′N, 19°55′E) May 22–25 and in Tauvo May 29–31. In addition, migratory bird samples were collected in Kokkola archipelago (63°52′N, 23°4′E) on July 30, 2005 (Figure 1, panel A). Birds were captured with mist nets and identified by certified bird ringers. Blood samples were obtained by absorbing blood from the veins of wings or feet into filter paper slips and then dried. When possible, samples from native birds were also collected into small glass capillary tubes. Samples from migratory birds were collected with the permission of the Animal Experiment Committee of the University of Helsinki (permission no. HY75-04). We used the English and scientific names of birds according to Cramp et al. (28).


Sindbis virus infection in resident birds, migratory birds, and humans, Finland.

Kurkela S, Rätti O, Huhtamo E, Uzcátegui NY, Nuorti JP, Laakkonen J, Manni T, Helle P, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

A) Map of Finland with the hospital district divisions. Migratory bird samples were collected from Lågskär, Tauvo, Jurmo, and Kokkola. B) Mean seroprevalence (1999–2003) of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. N/A, not available. C) Average annualized incidence (1995–2003) of SINV infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. D) Prevalence of SINV hemagluttination-inhibition antibodies in resident grouse in Finland. The left bars represent the year 2003 and right bars 2004. The bars represent the total number of samples available; the black areas, the number of seropositive samples. *In 2003 in East Savo, the only sample collected was seropositive.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2600146&req=5

Figure 1: A) Map of Finland with the hospital district divisions. Migratory bird samples were collected from Lågskär, Tauvo, Jurmo, and Kokkola. B) Mean seroprevalence (1999–2003) of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. N/A, not available. C) Average annualized incidence (1995–2003) of SINV infection in human population (according to place of treatment) in the hospital districts of Finland. D) Prevalence of SINV hemagluttination-inhibition antibodies in resident grouse in Finland. The left bars represent the year 2003 and right bars 2004. The bars represent the total number of samples available; the black areas, the number of seropositive samples. *In 2003 in East Savo, the only sample collected was seropositive.
Mentions: In 2004, blood samples were collected from migratory birds in 2 bird observatories during their spring migration: on Jurmo Island (59°50′N, 21°36′E) on May 18 and 19 and in Tauvo (64°49′N, 24°37′E) May 24–27. In 2005, blood samples were also collected in 2 different bird observatories during the spring migration: on Lågskär Island (59°50′N, 19°55′E) May 22–25 and in Tauvo May 29–31. In addition, migratory bird samples were collected in Kokkola archipelago (63°52′N, 23°4′E) on July 30, 2005 (Figure 1, panel A). Birds were captured with mist nets and identified by certified bird ringers. Blood samples were obtained by absorbing blood from the veins of wings or feet into filter paper slips and then dried. When possible, samples from native birds were also collected into small glass capillary tubes. Samples from migratory birds were collected with the permission of the Animal Experiment Committee of the University of Helsinki (permission no. HY75-04). We used the English and scientific names of birds according to Cramp et al. (28).

Bottom Line: SINV antibodies were first found in 3 birds (red-backed shrike, robin, song thrush) during their spring migration to northern Europe.Among 2,529 persons, the age-standardized seroprevalence (1999-2003) was 5.2%; seroprevalence and incidence (1995-2003) were highest in North Karelia (eastern Finland).Grouse may contribute to the epidemiology of SINV in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Haartman Institute at the University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, Helsinki, Finland. satu.kurkela@helsinki.fi

ABSTRACT
Sindbis virus (SINV), a mosquito-borne virus that causes rash and arthritis, has been causing outbreaks in humans every seventh year in northern Europe. To gain a better understanding of SINV epidemiology in Finland, we searched for SINV antibodies in 621 resident grouse, whose population declines have coincided with human SINV outbreaks, and in 836 migratory birds. We used hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests for the bird samples and enzyme immunoassays and hemagglutination-inhibition for the human samples. SINV antibodies were first found in 3 birds (red-backed shrike, robin, song thrush) during their spring migration to northern Europe. Of the grouse, 27.4% were seropositive in 2003 (1 year after a human outbreak), but only 1.4% were seropositive in 2004. Among 2,529 persons, the age-standardized seroprevalence (1999-2003) was 5.2%; seroprevalence and incidence (1995-2003) were highest in North Karelia (eastern Finland). Grouse may contribute to the epidemiology of SINV in humans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus