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Size variation in small-bodied humans from palau, micronesia.

Gallagher A - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied.Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction.Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. Andrew.Gallagher@wits.ac.za

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated

Methodology/principal findings: Published postcranial specimens (n = 16) from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied.

Conclusions/significance: A single, homogenous body size morph is represented in early prehistoric postcrania from Palau. Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction. Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

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Bootstrapped Grand Means (n = 5000) for the SE Asian Negritos.
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pone-0003939-g003: Bootstrapped Grand Means (n = 5000) for the SE Asian Negritos.

Mentions: The CV* for the distal humerii approaches the significance criterion of African Pygmy and SE Asian Negrito CV*s but remains insignificant (Table 4 [Figures S1 & S2]). The Grand Mean of the Palau series (n = 16) is significantly greater than approximates derived from African Pygmies but not Southeast Asian Negritos (Table 4; Figures 3 and S3). Bootstrapped standard deviations (SD's) confirm that the variation within the Palau postcranial series is not significant and is generally consistent with that observed in small-bodied human references (Table 4). Statistical comparisons of the associated femur and tibia from Chelechol ra Orrak [7] confirms that these derive from a small-bodied individual [Figures S4 and S5]. Pairwise randomization and bootstrapped t-tests reject the hypothesis that the Chelechol ra Orrak specimens exceed the size range of small-bodied humans. The observed homogeneity of prehistoric humans from Palau confirms the hypothesis that a single size morph is represented at c3000 BP. Early prehistoric Palauans were indisputably ‘small-bodied’.


Size variation in small-bodied humans from palau, micronesia.

Gallagher A - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bootstrapped Grand Means (n = 5000) for the SE Asian Negritos.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2596964&req=5

pone-0003939-g003: Bootstrapped Grand Means (n = 5000) for the SE Asian Negritos.
Mentions: The CV* for the distal humerii approaches the significance criterion of African Pygmy and SE Asian Negrito CV*s but remains insignificant (Table 4 [Figures S1 & S2]). The Grand Mean of the Palau series (n = 16) is significantly greater than approximates derived from African Pygmies but not Southeast Asian Negritos (Table 4; Figures 3 and S3). Bootstrapped standard deviations (SD's) confirm that the variation within the Palau postcranial series is not significant and is generally consistent with that observed in small-bodied human references (Table 4). Statistical comparisons of the associated femur and tibia from Chelechol ra Orrak [7] confirms that these derive from a small-bodied individual [Figures S4 and S5]. Pairwise randomization and bootstrapped t-tests reject the hypothesis that the Chelechol ra Orrak specimens exceed the size range of small-bodied humans. The observed homogeneity of prehistoric humans from Palau confirms the hypothesis that a single size morph is represented at c3000 BP. Early prehistoric Palauans were indisputably ‘small-bodied’.

Bottom Line: Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied.Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction.Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. Andrew.Gallagher@wits.ac.za

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated

Methodology/principal findings: Published postcranial specimens (n = 16) from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied.

Conclusions/significance: A single, homogenous body size morph is represented in early prehistoric postcrania from Palau. Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction. Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

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