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Size variation in small-bodied humans from palau, micronesia.

Gallagher A - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied.Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction.Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. Andrew.Gallagher@wits.ac.za

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated

Methodology/principal findings: Published postcranial specimens (n = 16) from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied.

Conclusions/significance: A single, homogenous body size morph is represented in early prehistoric postcrania from Palau. Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction. Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

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Specimen inventory numbers (see Table 1 for inventory) are from Nelson and Fitzgerald (2006; TU [Chelechol ra Orrak]), Berger et al. (2008; B:OR-14 [Ucheliungs], B:OR-15 [Omedokel]) and Brown et al. (2004; LB1).Chelechol ra Orrak, Grey Squares; Ucheliungs Cave, White Squares; Omedokel Cave, Grey Asterisks; Liang Bua 1, Grey Triangles.
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pone-0003939-g001: Specimen inventory numbers (see Table 1 for inventory) are from Nelson and Fitzgerald (2006; TU [Chelechol ra Orrak]), Berger et al. (2008; B:OR-14 [Ucheliungs], B:OR-15 [Omedokel]) and Brown et al. (2004; LB1).Chelechol ra Orrak, Grey Squares; Ucheliungs Cave, White Squares; Omedokel Cave, Grey Asterisks; Liang Bua 1, Grey Triangles.

Mentions: Results are consistent irrespective of whether bootstrapping or randomization is preferred [Supplementary Data 1]. African Pygmies and Southeast Asian Negritos are remarkably similar in their distal humerii but differ significantly in lower limb size profiles (Figures 1 and 2 [Tables S1 and S2]). The African Pygmy and Southeast Asian Negrito samples are significantly smaller than African and European samples [Tables S3 and S4]. Direct comparisons confirm that a majority of the Palau postcrania derive from individuals whom can be accommodated within the observed size ranges of small-bodied humans (Tables 2 and 3). Four distal humerii exceed the upper 95% CI's for African Pygmies, but not SE Asian Negritos. Lower limb specimens are not excessively small and approximate the observed distribution of African Pygmies. Two lower limb elements; B:OR-15:18-009 [innominate] and B:OR-15:18-040 [proximal tibia] are ‘extremely small’. While the B:OR-15:18-040 proximal tibia approximates the LB1 hominin [11] there is little support for the hypothesis that these specimens exceed the lower size range in recent humans. In contrast, postcranial dimensions of the LB1 hominin cannot be sampled from recent small-bodied humans and are truly diminutive (Tables 2 and 3). Results confirm previous conclusions that the Rock Island specimens are those of small-bodied humans [8].


Size variation in small-bodied humans from palau, micronesia.

Gallagher A - PLoS ONE (2008)

Specimen inventory numbers (see Table 1 for inventory) are from Nelson and Fitzgerald (2006; TU [Chelechol ra Orrak]), Berger et al. (2008; B:OR-14 [Ucheliungs], B:OR-15 [Omedokel]) and Brown et al. (2004; LB1).Chelechol ra Orrak, Grey Squares; Ucheliungs Cave, White Squares; Omedokel Cave, Grey Asterisks; Liang Bua 1, Grey Triangles.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2596964&req=5

pone-0003939-g001: Specimen inventory numbers (see Table 1 for inventory) are from Nelson and Fitzgerald (2006; TU [Chelechol ra Orrak]), Berger et al. (2008; B:OR-14 [Ucheliungs], B:OR-15 [Omedokel]) and Brown et al. (2004; LB1).Chelechol ra Orrak, Grey Squares; Ucheliungs Cave, White Squares; Omedokel Cave, Grey Asterisks; Liang Bua 1, Grey Triangles.
Mentions: Results are consistent irrespective of whether bootstrapping or randomization is preferred [Supplementary Data 1]. African Pygmies and Southeast Asian Negritos are remarkably similar in their distal humerii but differ significantly in lower limb size profiles (Figures 1 and 2 [Tables S1 and S2]). The African Pygmy and Southeast Asian Negrito samples are significantly smaller than African and European samples [Tables S3 and S4]. Direct comparisons confirm that a majority of the Palau postcrania derive from individuals whom can be accommodated within the observed size ranges of small-bodied humans (Tables 2 and 3). Four distal humerii exceed the upper 95% CI's for African Pygmies, but not SE Asian Negritos. Lower limb specimens are not excessively small and approximate the observed distribution of African Pygmies. Two lower limb elements; B:OR-15:18-009 [innominate] and B:OR-15:18-040 [proximal tibia] are ‘extremely small’. While the B:OR-15:18-040 proximal tibia approximates the LB1 hominin [11] there is little support for the hypothesis that these specimens exceed the lower size range in recent humans. In contrast, postcranial dimensions of the LB1 hominin cannot be sampled from recent small-bodied humans and are truly diminutive (Tables 2 and 3). Results confirm previous conclusions that the Rock Island specimens are those of small-bodied humans [8].

Bottom Line: Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied.Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction.Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Johannesburg, South Africa. Andrew.Gallagher@wits.ac.za

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent discoveries on Palau are claimed to represent the remains of small-bodied humans that may display evidence insular size reduction. This claim has yet to be statistically validated

Methodology/principal findings: Published postcranial specimens (n = 16) from Palau were assessed relative to recent small-bodied comparative samples. Resampling statistical approaches were employed to test specific hypotheses relating to body size in the Palau sample. Results confirm that the Palau postcranial sample is indisputably small-bodied.

Conclusions/significance: A single, homogenous body size morph is represented in early prehistoric postcrania from Palau. Small body size in early Palauans is an ancestral characteristic and was likely not a consequence of in-situ size reduction. Specimens from Palau have little bearing upon hypothesised insular size reduction in the ancestral lineage of Homo floresiensis.

Show MeSH