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Disruption of learned timing in P/Q calcium channel mutants.

Katoh A, Chapman PJ, Raymond JL - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: To optimize motor performance, both the amplitude and temporal properties of movements should be modifiable by motor learning.Here we report that the modification of movement timing is highly dependent on signaling through P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels.The results thus demonstrate a distinction between the molecular signaling pathways regulating the timing versus amplitude of movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
To optimize motor performance, both the amplitude and temporal properties of movements should be modifiable by motor learning. Here we report that the modification of movement timing is highly dependent on signaling through P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. Two lines of mutant mice heterozygous for P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels exhibited impaired plasticity of eye movement timing, but relatively intact plasticity of movement amplitude during motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The results thus demonstrate a distinction between the molecular signaling pathways regulating the timing versus amplitude of movements.

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Effect of training frequency on the learned changes in VOR gain (A) and phase (B).Frequency-selective impairment of changes in VOR gain (A) and frequency-independent impairment of changes in VOR phase (B) in α1A+/− mice (red) relative to wild-type mice (black) during x1/90°lead training. Data for 1 Hz are the same as in Fig. 2 (training paradigm ‘a’). A different set of wild-type and α1A+/− mice was tested at 0.5 and 2 Hz. *: p<0.017 by Bonferroni-corrected t-test.
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pone-0003635-g004: Effect of training frequency on the learned changes in VOR gain (A) and phase (B).Frequency-selective impairment of changes in VOR gain (A) and frequency-independent impairment of changes in VOR phase (B) in α1A+/− mice (red) relative to wild-type mice (black) during x1/90°lead training. Data for 1 Hz are the same as in Fig. 2 (training paradigm ‘a’). A different set of wild-type and α1A+/− mice was tested at 0.5 and 2 Hz. *: p<0.017 by Bonferroni-corrected t-test.

Mentions: A) One of the visual-vestibular training paradigms used to induce learning. The eye movement required to stabilize image motion is equal to the movement of the visual stimulus relative to the head. During x1/90°lead training, the visual stimulus movement had the same amplitude as head movement but was phase shifted to lead oppositely-directed head movement by 90° (thick upper trace). The eye movement required to stabilize an image under normal viewing conditions with an earth-stationary visual stimulus is also shown (thin upper trace). B) Representative traces illustrating the average VOR response to the same head velocity stimulus before (thin lines) and after (thick lines) 30 min of x1/90°lead training in a wild-type mouse. Arrows indicate the timing of peak eye velocity relative to peak head velocity before (downward arrows) and after (upward arrows) training. The training produced a shift in the time of peak eye velocity (VOR phase) and a decrease in the amplitude of the eye movement (VOR gain). Horizontal calibration bar indicates 500 ms; vertical bar indicates 10°/s for head velocity, 5°/s for eye velocity. C) Learned changes in the phase (abscissa) and gain (ordinate) of the VOR in wild-type mice induced by ten different visual-vestibular training paradigms (indicated by the letter on each symbol; see Methods for more detail). The training paradigm indicated by the open symbol, ‘a’, is used in Fig. 4. Error bars indicate standard error. D) Learned change in the deviation of the VOR response from the ideal eye movement required by each training paradigm to stabilize the visual image on the retina, calculated as (VORpost−Ideal)/(VORpre−Ideal), where VORpost−Ideal and VORpre−Ideal represent the length of the vector difference between the actual and ideal VOR gain and phase. A value less than 1 means that the change in the VOR during learning reduced image motion on the retina.


Disruption of learned timing in P/Q calcium channel mutants.

Katoh A, Chapman PJ, Raymond JL - PLoS ONE (2008)

Effect of training frequency on the learned changes in VOR gain (A) and phase (B).Frequency-selective impairment of changes in VOR gain (A) and frequency-independent impairment of changes in VOR phase (B) in α1A+/− mice (red) relative to wild-type mice (black) during x1/90°lead training. Data for 1 Hz are the same as in Fig. 2 (training paradigm ‘a’). A different set of wild-type and α1A+/− mice was tested at 0.5 and 2 Hz. *: p<0.017 by Bonferroni-corrected t-test.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2572847&req=5

pone-0003635-g004: Effect of training frequency on the learned changes in VOR gain (A) and phase (B).Frequency-selective impairment of changes in VOR gain (A) and frequency-independent impairment of changes in VOR phase (B) in α1A+/− mice (red) relative to wild-type mice (black) during x1/90°lead training. Data for 1 Hz are the same as in Fig. 2 (training paradigm ‘a’). A different set of wild-type and α1A+/− mice was tested at 0.5 and 2 Hz. *: p<0.017 by Bonferroni-corrected t-test.
Mentions: A) One of the visual-vestibular training paradigms used to induce learning. The eye movement required to stabilize image motion is equal to the movement of the visual stimulus relative to the head. During x1/90°lead training, the visual stimulus movement had the same amplitude as head movement but was phase shifted to lead oppositely-directed head movement by 90° (thick upper trace). The eye movement required to stabilize an image under normal viewing conditions with an earth-stationary visual stimulus is also shown (thin upper trace). B) Representative traces illustrating the average VOR response to the same head velocity stimulus before (thin lines) and after (thick lines) 30 min of x1/90°lead training in a wild-type mouse. Arrows indicate the timing of peak eye velocity relative to peak head velocity before (downward arrows) and after (upward arrows) training. The training produced a shift in the time of peak eye velocity (VOR phase) and a decrease in the amplitude of the eye movement (VOR gain). Horizontal calibration bar indicates 500 ms; vertical bar indicates 10°/s for head velocity, 5°/s for eye velocity. C) Learned changes in the phase (abscissa) and gain (ordinate) of the VOR in wild-type mice induced by ten different visual-vestibular training paradigms (indicated by the letter on each symbol; see Methods for more detail). The training paradigm indicated by the open symbol, ‘a’, is used in Fig. 4. Error bars indicate standard error. D) Learned change in the deviation of the VOR response from the ideal eye movement required by each training paradigm to stabilize the visual image on the retina, calculated as (VORpost−Ideal)/(VORpre−Ideal), where VORpost−Ideal and VORpre−Ideal represent the length of the vector difference between the actual and ideal VOR gain and phase. A value less than 1 means that the change in the VOR during learning reduced image motion on the retina.

Bottom Line: To optimize motor performance, both the amplitude and temporal properties of movements should be modifiable by motor learning.Here we report that the modification of movement timing is highly dependent on signaling through P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels.The results thus demonstrate a distinction between the molecular signaling pathways regulating the timing versus amplitude of movements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

ABSTRACT
To optimize motor performance, both the amplitude and temporal properties of movements should be modifiable by motor learning. Here we report that the modification of movement timing is highly dependent on signaling through P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. Two lines of mutant mice heterozygous for P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels exhibited impaired plasticity of eye movement timing, but relatively intact plasticity of movement amplitude during motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The results thus demonstrate a distinction between the molecular signaling pathways regulating the timing versus amplitude of movements.

Show MeSH