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The evolutionary dynamics of the lion Panthera leo revealed by host and viral population genomics.

Antunes A, Troyer JL, Roelke ME, Pecon-Slattery J, Packer C, Winterbach C, Winterbach H, Hemson G, Frank L, Stander P, Siefert L, Driciru M, Funston PJ, Alexander KA, Prager KC, Mills G, Wildt D, Bush M, O'Brien SJ, Johnson WE - PLoS Genet. (2008)

Bottom Line: In spite of the ability of lions to disperse long distances, patterns of lion genetic diversity suggest substantial population subdivision (mtDNA Phi(ST) = 0.92; nDNA F(ST) = 0.18), and reduced gene flow, which, along with large differences in sero-prevalence of six distinct FIV(Ple) subtypes among lion populations, refute the hypothesis that African lions consist of a single panmictic population.Our results suggest that extant lion populations derive from several Pleistocene refugia in East and Southern Africa ( approximately 324,000-169,000 years ago), which expanded during the Late Pleistocene ( approximately 100,000 years ago) into Central and North Africa and into Asia.In particular, lion and FIV(Ple) variation affirms that the large, well-studied lion population occupying the greater Serengeti Ecosystem is derived from three distinct populations that admixed recently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The lion Panthera leo is one of the world's most charismatic carnivores and is one of Africa's key predators. Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1.13 megabases of sequence data and genotypes from 22 microsatellite loci to characterize its recent evolutionary history. Patterns of molecular genetic variation in multiple maternal (mtDNA), paternal (Y-chromosome), and biparental nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers were compared with patterns of sequence and subtype variation of the lion feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV(Ple)), a lentivirus analogous to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In spite of the ability of lions to disperse long distances, patterns of lion genetic diversity suggest substantial population subdivision (mtDNA Phi(ST) = 0.92; nDNA F(ST) = 0.18), and reduced gene flow, which, along with large differences in sero-prevalence of six distinct FIV(Ple) subtypes among lion populations, refute the hypothesis that African lions consist of a single panmictic population. Our results suggest that extant lion populations derive from several Pleistocene refugia in East and Southern Africa ( approximately 324,000-169,000 years ago), which expanded during the Late Pleistocene ( approximately 100,000 years ago) into Central and North Africa and into Asia. During the Pleistocene/Holocene transition ( approximately 14,000-7,000 years), another expansion occurred from southern refugia northwards towards East Africa, causing population interbreeding. In particular, lion and FIV(Ple) variation affirms that the large, well-studied lion population occupying the greater Serengeti Ecosystem is derived from three distinct populations that admixed recently.

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Geographic location of the lion samples and the variability of host and viral genetic markers among lion populations.(A) Historical and current geographic distribution of lion, Panthera leo. A three-letter code pointing to a white dotted circle represents the geographic location of the 11 lion populations determined by Bayesian analyses [22] and factorial correspondence analyses [23] of the genetic distinctiveness of 357 lion samples (see text): GIR, Gir Forest, India; UGA, Uganda (Queen Elizabeth National Park); KEN, Kenya (Laikipia), SER, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania; NGC, Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania; KRU, Kruger National Park, South Africa; BOT-I, southern Botswana and Kalahari, South Africa; BOT-II, northern Botswana; and NAM, Namibia. Green squares represent captive individual samples to explore the relationship of lions from more isolated/endangered/depleted areas: ATL, Morocco Atlas lions (n = 4); ANG, Angola (n = 2); and ZBW, Zimbabwe (n = 1). Deduced historical expansions (M1 and M2) are represented by red arrows (see text). (B) Haplotype frequencies observed in the 11 lion populations for nDNA (ADA and TF), and mtDNA (12S–16S) genes, paralleled with the FIVPle serum-prevalence frequencies (black – sero-positive; gray – indeterminate; white – sero-negative). Population sample sizes are indicated within parenthesis. (C) Statistical parsimony networks of lion ADA, TF, and 12S–16S haplotypes. Circle size is proportional to the haplotype frequency and crossbars represent the number of step mutations connecting haplotypes. The mtDNA haplotypes H5 and H6 are shaded gray as they were detected only in the individual samples from ANG, ATL, and ZBW, which do not group in unique population clusters (see text).
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pgen-1000251-g001: Geographic location of the lion samples and the variability of host and viral genetic markers among lion populations.(A) Historical and current geographic distribution of lion, Panthera leo. A three-letter code pointing to a white dotted circle represents the geographic location of the 11 lion populations determined by Bayesian analyses [22] and factorial correspondence analyses [23] of the genetic distinctiveness of 357 lion samples (see text): GIR, Gir Forest, India; UGA, Uganda (Queen Elizabeth National Park); KEN, Kenya (Laikipia), SER, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania; NGC, Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania; KRU, Kruger National Park, South Africa; BOT-I, southern Botswana and Kalahari, South Africa; BOT-II, northern Botswana; and NAM, Namibia. Green squares represent captive individual samples to explore the relationship of lions from more isolated/endangered/depleted areas: ATL, Morocco Atlas lions (n = 4); ANG, Angola (n = 2); and ZBW, Zimbabwe (n = 1). Deduced historical expansions (M1 and M2) are represented by red arrows (see text). (B) Haplotype frequencies observed in the 11 lion populations for nDNA (ADA and TF), and mtDNA (12S–16S) genes, paralleled with the FIVPle serum-prevalence frequencies (black – sero-positive; gray – indeterminate; white – sero-negative). Population sample sizes are indicated within parenthesis. (C) Statistical parsimony networks of lion ADA, TF, and 12S–16S haplotypes. Circle size is proportional to the haplotype frequency and crossbars represent the number of step mutations connecting haplotypes. The mtDNA haplotypes H5 and H6 are shaded gray as they were detected only in the individual samples from ANG, ATL, and ZBW, which do not group in unique population clusters (see text).

Mentions: Lion fossils trace to the Late Pliocene in Eastern Africa and the Early Pleistocene in Eastern and Southern Africa coincident with the flourishing of grasslands ∼2–1.5 million years ago [1],[2]. By Mid Pleistocene (∼500,000 years ago), lions occupied Europe and by the Late Pleistocene (∼130,000–10,000 years ago) lions had the greatest intercontinental distribution for a large land mammal (excluding man), ranging from Africa into Eurasia and the Americas [3]. Lions were extirpated from Europe 2,000 years ago and within the last 150 years from the Middle East and North Africa. Today, there are less than 50,000 free-ranging lions [4] that occur only in sub-Saharan Africa and the Gir Forest, India (Figure 1A).


The evolutionary dynamics of the lion Panthera leo revealed by host and viral population genomics.

Antunes A, Troyer JL, Roelke ME, Pecon-Slattery J, Packer C, Winterbach C, Winterbach H, Hemson G, Frank L, Stander P, Siefert L, Driciru M, Funston PJ, Alexander KA, Prager KC, Mills G, Wildt D, Bush M, O'Brien SJ, Johnson WE - PLoS Genet. (2008)

Geographic location of the lion samples and the variability of host and viral genetic markers among lion populations.(A) Historical and current geographic distribution of lion, Panthera leo. A three-letter code pointing to a white dotted circle represents the geographic location of the 11 lion populations determined by Bayesian analyses [22] and factorial correspondence analyses [23] of the genetic distinctiveness of 357 lion samples (see text): GIR, Gir Forest, India; UGA, Uganda (Queen Elizabeth National Park); KEN, Kenya (Laikipia), SER, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania; NGC, Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania; KRU, Kruger National Park, South Africa; BOT-I, southern Botswana and Kalahari, South Africa; BOT-II, northern Botswana; and NAM, Namibia. Green squares represent captive individual samples to explore the relationship of lions from more isolated/endangered/depleted areas: ATL, Morocco Atlas lions (n = 4); ANG, Angola (n = 2); and ZBW, Zimbabwe (n = 1). Deduced historical expansions (M1 and M2) are represented by red arrows (see text). (B) Haplotype frequencies observed in the 11 lion populations for nDNA (ADA and TF), and mtDNA (12S–16S) genes, paralleled with the FIVPle serum-prevalence frequencies (black – sero-positive; gray – indeterminate; white – sero-negative). Population sample sizes are indicated within parenthesis. (C) Statistical parsimony networks of lion ADA, TF, and 12S–16S haplotypes. Circle size is proportional to the haplotype frequency and crossbars represent the number of step mutations connecting haplotypes. The mtDNA haplotypes H5 and H6 are shaded gray as they were detected only in the individual samples from ANG, ATL, and ZBW, which do not group in unique population clusters (see text).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2572142&req=5

pgen-1000251-g001: Geographic location of the lion samples and the variability of host and viral genetic markers among lion populations.(A) Historical and current geographic distribution of lion, Panthera leo. A three-letter code pointing to a white dotted circle represents the geographic location of the 11 lion populations determined by Bayesian analyses [22] and factorial correspondence analyses [23] of the genetic distinctiveness of 357 lion samples (see text): GIR, Gir Forest, India; UGA, Uganda (Queen Elizabeth National Park); KEN, Kenya (Laikipia), SER, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania; NGC, Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania; KRU, Kruger National Park, South Africa; BOT-I, southern Botswana and Kalahari, South Africa; BOT-II, northern Botswana; and NAM, Namibia. Green squares represent captive individual samples to explore the relationship of lions from more isolated/endangered/depleted areas: ATL, Morocco Atlas lions (n = 4); ANG, Angola (n = 2); and ZBW, Zimbabwe (n = 1). Deduced historical expansions (M1 and M2) are represented by red arrows (see text). (B) Haplotype frequencies observed in the 11 lion populations for nDNA (ADA and TF), and mtDNA (12S–16S) genes, paralleled with the FIVPle serum-prevalence frequencies (black – sero-positive; gray – indeterminate; white – sero-negative). Population sample sizes are indicated within parenthesis. (C) Statistical parsimony networks of lion ADA, TF, and 12S–16S haplotypes. Circle size is proportional to the haplotype frequency and crossbars represent the number of step mutations connecting haplotypes. The mtDNA haplotypes H5 and H6 are shaded gray as they were detected only in the individual samples from ANG, ATL, and ZBW, which do not group in unique population clusters (see text).
Mentions: Lion fossils trace to the Late Pliocene in Eastern Africa and the Early Pleistocene in Eastern and Southern Africa coincident with the flourishing of grasslands ∼2–1.5 million years ago [1],[2]. By Mid Pleistocene (∼500,000 years ago), lions occupied Europe and by the Late Pleistocene (∼130,000–10,000 years ago) lions had the greatest intercontinental distribution for a large land mammal (excluding man), ranging from Africa into Eurasia and the Americas [3]. Lions were extirpated from Europe 2,000 years ago and within the last 150 years from the Middle East and North Africa. Today, there are less than 50,000 free-ranging lions [4] that occur only in sub-Saharan Africa and the Gir Forest, India (Figure 1A).

Bottom Line: In spite of the ability of lions to disperse long distances, patterns of lion genetic diversity suggest substantial population subdivision (mtDNA Phi(ST) = 0.92; nDNA F(ST) = 0.18), and reduced gene flow, which, along with large differences in sero-prevalence of six distinct FIV(Ple) subtypes among lion populations, refute the hypothesis that African lions consist of a single panmictic population.Our results suggest that extant lion populations derive from several Pleistocene refugia in East and Southern Africa ( approximately 324,000-169,000 years ago), which expanded during the Late Pleistocene ( approximately 100,000 years ago) into Central and North Africa and into Asia.In particular, lion and FIV(Ple) variation affirms that the large, well-studied lion population occupying the greater Serengeti Ecosystem is derived from three distinct populations that admixed recently.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The lion Panthera leo is one of the world's most charismatic carnivores and is one of Africa's key predators. Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1.13 megabases of sequence data and genotypes from 22 microsatellite loci to characterize its recent evolutionary history. Patterns of molecular genetic variation in multiple maternal (mtDNA), paternal (Y-chromosome), and biparental nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers were compared with patterns of sequence and subtype variation of the lion feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV(Ple)), a lentivirus analogous to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In spite of the ability of lions to disperse long distances, patterns of lion genetic diversity suggest substantial population subdivision (mtDNA Phi(ST) = 0.92; nDNA F(ST) = 0.18), and reduced gene flow, which, along with large differences in sero-prevalence of six distinct FIV(Ple) subtypes among lion populations, refute the hypothesis that African lions consist of a single panmictic population. Our results suggest that extant lion populations derive from several Pleistocene refugia in East and Southern Africa ( approximately 324,000-169,000 years ago), which expanded during the Late Pleistocene ( approximately 100,000 years ago) into Central and North Africa and into Asia. During the Pleistocene/Holocene transition ( approximately 14,000-7,000 years), another expansion occurred from southern refugia northwards towards East Africa, causing population interbreeding. In particular, lion and FIV(Ple) variation affirms that the large, well-studied lion population occupying the greater Serengeti Ecosystem is derived from three distinct populations that admixed recently.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus