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Influence of race, ethnicity, and culture on childhood obesity: implications for prevention and treatment: a consensus statement of Shaping America's Health and the Obesity Society.

Caprio S, Daniels SR, Drewnowski A, Kaufman FR, Palinkas LA, Rosenbloom AL, Schwimmer JB - Diabetes Care (2008)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

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The prevalence of obesity has tripled since 1980 among children 6–11 years of age and adolescents 12–17 years of age, according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)... The Centers for Disease Control reported that in 2000 the prevalence of obesity was 19% of non-Hispanic black children and 20% of Mexican American children, compared with 11% of non-Hispanic white children... Although the overall prevalence of childhood obesity continued to increase during the first half of this decade (17% in 2004 vs. 14% in 2000), the differences by race/ethnicity appear to be diminishing, in part due to rapid increases in obesity in white children: in 2004 the prevalence of childhood obesity was 20% in non-Hispanic blacks, 19% in Mexican Americans, and 16% in non-Hispanic whites, and prevalence was highest in Mexican American boys (22%) and African American girls (24%)... In adolescents, the prevalence of severe obesity (BMI ≥30 mg/kg ) was 39% in Native American boys compared with 14% in both non-Hispanic white boys and black boys; it was 14% in Native American girls compared with 10% in non-Hispanic white girls and 18% in black girls... The prevalence of severe obesity (BMI >30 kg/m) in female adolescents was ∼10% in non-Hispanic whites, 20% in non-Hispanic blacks, and 16% in Mexican Americans... For example, low SES or discrimination by race or ethnicity may result in increased stress... Stress has a direct effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in elevation of plasma cortisol, which has been implicated in the development of obesity... Differences in levels and types of exposure to nutritional marketing may also account for cultural differences in patterns of nutrition... For instance, exposure to food-related television advertising was found to be 60% greater among African American children, with fast food as the most frequent category... The relationship between television watching and obesity may vary by race... Henderson found that white girls who watched more television at baseline showed a steeper increase in BMI over early adolescence than girls who watched less, while television viewing was not associated with adolescent BMI change in black girls... The integration of the family as an agent of change may be especially important in the treatment of childhood obesity... Comprehensive lifestyle interventions including behavior modification produce significant treatment effects in children... A major barrier to the treatment of obese children is the lack of insurance reimbursement... Future research will need to document the real lifetime costs of childhood obesity and to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of intervention on multiple outcomes including disease and quality of life.

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Overweight prevalence by race/ethnicity for adolescent boys and girls. Error bars represent SEs. (Reprinted with permission. JAMA 288:17281–732, 2002, ©2002, American Medical Association. All rights reserved.)
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f1: Overweight prevalence by race/ethnicity for adolescent boys and girls. Error bars represent SEs. (Reprinted with permission. JAMA 288:17281–732, 2002, ©2002, American Medical Association. All rights reserved.)

Mentions: The prevalence of childhood obesity among African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans exceeds that of other ethnic groups. The Centers for Disease Control reported that in 2000 the prevalence of obesity was 19% of non-Hispanic black children and 20% of Mexican American children, compared with 11% of non-Hispanic white children. The increase since 1980 is particularly evident among non-Hispanic black and Mexican American adolescents (Fig. 1).


Influence of race, ethnicity, and culture on childhood obesity: implications for prevention and treatment: a consensus statement of Shaping America's Health and the Obesity Society.

Caprio S, Daniels SR, Drewnowski A, Kaufman FR, Palinkas LA, Rosenbloom AL, Schwimmer JB - Diabetes Care (2008)

Overweight prevalence by race/ethnicity for adolescent boys and girls. Error bars represent SEs. (Reprinted with permission. JAMA 288:17281–732, 2002, ©2002, American Medical Association. All rights reserved.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2571048&req=5

f1: Overweight prevalence by race/ethnicity for adolescent boys and girls. Error bars represent SEs. (Reprinted with permission. JAMA 288:17281–732, 2002, ©2002, American Medical Association. All rights reserved.)
Mentions: The prevalence of childhood obesity among African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Native Americans exceeds that of other ethnic groups. The Centers for Disease Control reported that in 2000 the prevalence of obesity was 19% of non-Hispanic black children and 20% of Mexican American children, compared with 11% of non-Hispanic white children. The increase since 1980 is particularly evident among non-Hispanic black and Mexican American adolescents (Fig. 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

The prevalence of obesity has tripled since 1980 among children 6–11 years of age and adolescents 12–17 years of age, according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)... The Centers for Disease Control reported that in 2000 the prevalence of obesity was 19% of non-Hispanic black children and 20% of Mexican American children, compared with 11% of non-Hispanic white children... Although the overall prevalence of childhood obesity continued to increase during the first half of this decade (17% in 2004 vs. 14% in 2000), the differences by race/ethnicity appear to be diminishing, in part due to rapid increases in obesity in white children: in 2004 the prevalence of childhood obesity was 20% in non-Hispanic blacks, 19% in Mexican Americans, and 16% in non-Hispanic whites, and prevalence was highest in Mexican American boys (22%) and African American girls (24%)... In adolescents, the prevalence of severe obesity (BMI ≥30 mg/kg ) was 39% in Native American boys compared with 14% in both non-Hispanic white boys and black boys; it was 14% in Native American girls compared with 10% in non-Hispanic white girls and 18% in black girls... The prevalence of severe obesity (BMI >30 kg/m) in female adolescents was ∼10% in non-Hispanic whites, 20% in non-Hispanic blacks, and 16% in Mexican Americans... For example, low SES or discrimination by race or ethnicity may result in increased stress... Stress has a direct effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, resulting in elevation of plasma cortisol, which has been implicated in the development of obesity... Differences in levels and types of exposure to nutritional marketing may also account for cultural differences in patterns of nutrition... For instance, exposure to food-related television advertising was found to be 60% greater among African American children, with fast food as the most frequent category... The relationship between television watching and obesity may vary by race... Henderson found that white girls who watched more television at baseline showed a steeper increase in BMI over early adolescence than girls who watched less, while television viewing was not associated with adolescent BMI change in black girls... The integration of the family as an agent of change may be especially important in the treatment of childhood obesity... Comprehensive lifestyle interventions including behavior modification produce significant treatment effects in children... A major barrier to the treatment of obese children is the lack of insurance reimbursement... Future research will need to document the real lifetime costs of childhood obesity and to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of intervention on multiple outcomes including disease and quality of life.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus