Limits...
Bluetongue epidemiology in the European Union.

Saegerman C, Berkvens D, Mellor PS - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: Since August 2006, BTV-8 has caused a severe epizootic of BT in northern Europe.In addition, the radial extension of BTV-8 across Europe increases the risk for an encounter between this serotype and others, particularly those that occur in the Mediterranean Basin, where vector activity continues for more of the year.This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to Veterinary, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. claude.saegerman@ulg.ac.be

ABSTRACT
Bluetongue (BT) is a reportable disease of considerable socioeconomic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Before 1998, BT was considered an exotic disease in Europe. From 1998 through 2005, at least 6 BT virus strains belonging to 5 serotypes (BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-4, BTV-9, and BTV-16) were continuously present in the Mediterranean Basin. Since August 2006, BTV-8 has caused a severe epizootic of BT in northern Europe. The widespread recrudescence and extension of BTV-8 infections in northern Europe during 2007 suggest that requirements for BTV establishment may now be fulfilled in this area. In addition, the radial extension of BTV-8 across Europe increases the risk for an encounter between this serotype and others, particularly those that occur in the Mediterranean Basin, where vector activity continues for more of the year. This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Number of bluetongue outbreaks in Europe since January 1, 2006 (all serotypes). BE, Belgium; BG, Bulgaria; CH, Switzerland; CS, Czech Republic; DE, Germany; DK, Denmark; ES, Spain; FR, France; IT, Italy; LU, Luxembourg; NL, Netherlands; PT, Portugal; UK, United Kingdom.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2570923&req=5

Figure 4: Number of bluetongue outbreaks in Europe since January 1, 2006 (all serotypes). BE, Belgium; BG, Bulgaria; CH, Switzerland; CS, Czech Republic; DE, Germany; DK, Denmark; ES, Spain; FR, France; IT, Italy; LU, Luxembourg; NL, Netherlands; PT, Portugal; UK, United Kingdom.

Mentions: The focus of interest now is to see if BTV is able to survive regularly between vector seasons and become endemic to northern Europe. The recrudescence of BTV-8 in northern France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany in 2007, and also the emergence of BTV-8 in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic, suggests that this may well be the case (27,28). Unlike farther south, where populations of the traditional vector, C. imicola, peak in the late summer and autumn, when most BT cases occur, populations of the indigenous European vectors peak earlier in the year; whether this will be reflected in a change in the temporal occurrence of BT cases remains to be seen. In the period from January 1, 2006, through December 28, 2007, 12 EU member states and Switzerland reported BT outbreaks on their territories, comprising all of the serotypes reported in Europe since 1998 (Figure 4) (29,30).


Bluetongue epidemiology in the European Union.

Saegerman C, Berkvens D, Mellor PS - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Number of bluetongue outbreaks in Europe since January 1, 2006 (all serotypes). BE, Belgium; BG, Bulgaria; CH, Switzerland; CS, Czech Republic; DE, Germany; DK, Denmark; ES, Spain; FR, France; IT, Italy; LU, Luxembourg; NL, Netherlands; PT, Portugal; UK, United Kingdom.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2570923&req=5

Figure 4: Number of bluetongue outbreaks in Europe since January 1, 2006 (all serotypes). BE, Belgium; BG, Bulgaria; CH, Switzerland; CS, Czech Republic; DE, Germany; DK, Denmark; ES, Spain; FR, France; IT, Italy; LU, Luxembourg; NL, Netherlands; PT, Portugal; UK, United Kingdom.
Mentions: The focus of interest now is to see if BTV is able to survive regularly between vector seasons and become endemic to northern Europe. The recrudescence of BTV-8 in northern France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany in 2007, and also the emergence of BTV-8 in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic, suggests that this may well be the case (27,28). Unlike farther south, where populations of the traditional vector, C. imicola, peak in the late summer and autumn, when most BT cases occur, populations of the indigenous European vectors peak earlier in the year; whether this will be reflected in a change in the temporal occurrence of BT cases remains to be seen. In the period from January 1, 2006, through December 28, 2007, 12 EU member states and Switzerland reported BT outbreaks on their territories, comprising all of the serotypes reported in Europe since 1998 (Figure 4) (29,30).

Bottom Line: Since August 2006, BTV-8 has caused a severe epizootic of BT in northern Europe.In addition, the radial extension of BTV-8 across Europe increases the risk for an encounter between this serotype and others, particularly those that occur in the Mediterranean Basin, where vector activity continues for more of the year.This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to Veterinary, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. claude.saegerman@ulg.ac.be

ABSTRACT
Bluetongue (BT) is a reportable disease of considerable socioeconomic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Before 1998, BT was considered an exotic disease in Europe. From 1998 through 2005, at least 6 BT virus strains belonging to 5 serotypes (BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-4, BTV-9, and BTV-16) were continuously present in the Mediterranean Basin. Since August 2006, BTV-8 has caused a severe epizootic of BT in northern Europe. The widespread recrudescence and extension of BTV-8 infections in northern Europe during 2007 suggest that requirements for BTV establishment may now be fulfilled in this area. In addition, the radial extension of BTV-8 across Europe increases the risk for an encounter between this serotype and others, particularly those that occur in the Mediterranean Basin, where vector activity continues for more of the year. This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus