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Bluetongue epidemiology in the European Union.

Saegerman C, Berkvens D, Mellor PS - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: Since August 2006, BTV-8 has caused a severe epizootic of BT in northern Europe.In addition, the radial extension of BTV-8 across Europe increases the risk for an encounter between this serotype and others, particularly those that occur in the Mediterranean Basin, where vector activity continues for more of the year.This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to Veterinary, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. claude.saegerman@ulg.ac.be

ABSTRACT
Bluetongue (BT) is a reportable disease of considerable socioeconomic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Before 1998, BT was considered an exotic disease in Europe. From 1998 through 2005, at least 6 BT virus strains belonging to 5 serotypes (BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-4, BTV-9, and BTV-16) were continuously present in the Mediterranean Basin. Since August 2006, BTV-8 has caused a severe epizootic of BT in northern Europe. The widespread recrudescence and extension of BTV-8 infections in northern Europe during 2007 suggest that requirements for BTV establishment may now be fulfilled in this area. In addition, the radial extension of BTV-8 across Europe increases the risk for an encounter between this serotype and others, particularly those that occur in the Mediterranean Basin, where vector activity continues for more of the year. This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A gravid female Culicoides dewulfi collected from a location near bluetongue outbreaks in Belgium in 2006 (Photograph: Reginald De Deken and Maxime Madder, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium).
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Figure 3: A gravid female Culicoides dewulfi collected from a location near bluetongue outbreaks in Belgium in 2006 (Photograph: Reginald De Deken and Maxime Madder, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium).

Mentions: BT was first identified in northern Europe in August 2006 and can be defined as an emergent disease in this zone (17). Between the date of the first report (August 17, 2006) and February 1, 2007 (18), 2,122 BT cases were entered into the European Commission’s Animal Disease Notification System (ADNS) (http://ec.europa.eu/food/animal/diseases/adns/index_en.htm) (Figure 2) (19). In this region, in 2006, a pool of 50 nonengorged, parous C. dewulfi (Goetghebuer) in the Netherlands were positive by PCR for BTV (20), and several pools of C. obsoletus complex in Germany (i.e., not identified down to species) were also PCR positive for BTV (21) (Figure 3). Although isolation of live BTV was not attempted in either instance, this research, conducted in an area where C. imicola does not occur, confirms the earlier findings of Mellor and Pitzolis, who isolated infectious BTV from nonengorged parous C. obsoletus in Cyprus, and shows that indigenous European Culicoides species can support a BT epizootic (22). Because C. obsoletus complex midges and C. dewulfi occur widely across central and northern Europe, this entire area must now be considered to be at risk for BTV (23,24).


Bluetongue epidemiology in the European Union.

Saegerman C, Berkvens D, Mellor PS - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

A gravid female Culicoides dewulfi collected from a location near bluetongue outbreaks in Belgium in 2006 (Photograph: Reginald De Deken and Maxime Madder, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2570923&req=5

Figure 3: A gravid female Culicoides dewulfi collected from a location near bluetongue outbreaks in Belgium in 2006 (Photograph: Reginald De Deken and Maxime Madder, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium).
Mentions: BT was first identified in northern Europe in August 2006 and can be defined as an emergent disease in this zone (17). Between the date of the first report (August 17, 2006) and February 1, 2007 (18), 2,122 BT cases were entered into the European Commission’s Animal Disease Notification System (ADNS) (http://ec.europa.eu/food/animal/diseases/adns/index_en.htm) (Figure 2) (19). In this region, in 2006, a pool of 50 nonengorged, parous C. dewulfi (Goetghebuer) in the Netherlands were positive by PCR for BTV (20), and several pools of C. obsoletus complex in Germany (i.e., not identified down to species) were also PCR positive for BTV (21) (Figure 3). Although isolation of live BTV was not attempted in either instance, this research, conducted in an area where C. imicola does not occur, confirms the earlier findings of Mellor and Pitzolis, who isolated infectious BTV from nonengorged parous C. obsoletus in Cyprus, and shows that indigenous European Culicoides species can support a BT epizootic (22). Because C. obsoletus complex midges and C. dewulfi occur widely across central and northern Europe, this entire area must now be considered to be at risk for BTV (23,24).

Bottom Line: Since August 2006, BTV-8 has caused a severe epizootic of BT in northern Europe.In addition, the radial extension of BTV-8 across Europe increases the risk for an encounter between this serotype and others, particularly those that occur in the Mediterranean Basin, where vector activity continues for more of the year.This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to Veterinary, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. claude.saegerman@ulg.ac.be

ABSTRACT
Bluetongue (BT) is a reportable disease of considerable socioeconomic concern and of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. Before 1998, BT was considered an exotic disease in Europe. From 1998 through 2005, at least 6 BT virus strains belonging to 5 serotypes (BTV-1, BTV-2, BTV-4, BTV-9, and BTV-16) were continuously present in the Mediterranean Basin. Since August 2006, BTV-8 has caused a severe epizootic of BT in northern Europe. The widespread recrudescence and extension of BTV-8 infections in northern Europe during 2007 suggest that requirements for BTV establishment may now be fulfilled in this area. In addition, the radial extension of BTV-8 across Europe increases the risk for an encounter between this serotype and others, particularly those that occur in the Mediterranean Basin, where vector activity continues for more of the year. This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus