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Rabies virus in raccoons, Ohio, 2004.

Henderson JC, Biek R, Hanlon CA, O'Dee S, Real LA - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: In 2004, the raccoon rabies virus variant emerged in Ohio beyond an area where oral rabies vaccine had been distributed to prevent westward spread of this variant.Our genetic investigation indicates that this outbreak may have begun several years before 2004 and may have originated within the vaccination zone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

ABSTRACT
In 2004, the raccoon rabies virus variant emerged in Ohio beyond an area where oral rabies vaccine had been distributed to prevent westward spread of this variant. Our genetic investigation indicates that this outbreak may have begun several years before 2004 and may have originated within the vaccination zone.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Spatial and genetic distribution of sequences of the raccoon rabies virus variant (RRV) from the 2004 Ohio outbreak relative to virus found in neighboring areas. A) Distribution of RRV samples included in phylogenetic analysis of G and N gene sequences (stars) or G sequences only (circles). Colors reflect phylogenetic groups as shown in panel B. B) Maximum-likelihood tree of concatenated G and N gene sequences of RRV sampled in or near Ohio, 1987–2004. Samples from the 2004 outbreak are boxed. Bootstrap values and corresponding Bayesian posterior values (% for both) are shown for key nodes. Tree was rooted by using RRV G and N sequences from a Florida raccoon (not shown). ORV, oral rabies vaccine. Scale bar = nucleotide substitutions per site.
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Figure 2: Spatial and genetic distribution of sequences of the raccoon rabies virus variant (RRV) from the 2004 Ohio outbreak relative to virus found in neighboring areas. A) Distribution of RRV samples included in phylogenetic analysis of G and N gene sequences (stars) or G sequences only (circles). Colors reflect phylogenetic groups as shown in panel B. B) Maximum-likelihood tree of concatenated G and N gene sequences of RRV sampled in or near Ohio, 1987–2004. Samples from the 2004 outbreak are boxed. Bootstrap values and corresponding Bayesian posterior values (% for both) are shown for key nodes. Tree was rooted by using RRV G and N sequences from a Florida raccoon (not shown). ORV, oral rabies vaccine. Scale bar = nucleotide substitutions per site.

Mentions: During 1999–2004, ORV had apparently limited further spread of the virus (5) (Figure 1). However, in July 2004, RRV was diagnosed in a raccoon northwest of the ORV zone in Lake County, Ohio. As of December 2005, enhanced surveillance had detected 77 rabid raccoons in Lake County and 2 adjacent counties (Geauga and Cuyahoga) (Figures 1 and 2, panel A). These detections raised the question whether current ORV and surveillance strategies are sufficient for containment and reaching the long-term goal of regional elimination of RRV. We used molecular analyses to gain insight into the factors and possible raccoon source populations associated with the breach of the ORV zone in Ohio.


Rabies virus in raccoons, Ohio, 2004.

Henderson JC, Biek R, Hanlon CA, O'Dee S, Real LA - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Spatial and genetic distribution of sequences of the raccoon rabies virus variant (RRV) from the 2004 Ohio outbreak relative to virus found in neighboring areas. A) Distribution of RRV samples included in phylogenetic analysis of G and N gene sequences (stars) or G sequences only (circles). Colors reflect phylogenetic groups as shown in panel B. B) Maximum-likelihood tree of concatenated G and N gene sequences of RRV sampled in or near Ohio, 1987–2004. Samples from the 2004 outbreak are boxed. Bootstrap values and corresponding Bayesian posterior values (% for both) are shown for key nodes. Tree was rooted by using RRV G and N sequences from a Florida raccoon (not shown). ORV, oral rabies vaccine. Scale bar = nucleotide substitutions per site.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2570922&req=5

Figure 2: Spatial and genetic distribution of sequences of the raccoon rabies virus variant (RRV) from the 2004 Ohio outbreak relative to virus found in neighboring areas. A) Distribution of RRV samples included in phylogenetic analysis of G and N gene sequences (stars) or G sequences only (circles). Colors reflect phylogenetic groups as shown in panel B. B) Maximum-likelihood tree of concatenated G and N gene sequences of RRV sampled in or near Ohio, 1987–2004. Samples from the 2004 outbreak are boxed. Bootstrap values and corresponding Bayesian posterior values (% for both) are shown for key nodes. Tree was rooted by using RRV G and N sequences from a Florida raccoon (not shown). ORV, oral rabies vaccine. Scale bar = nucleotide substitutions per site.
Mentions: During 1999–2004, ORV had apparently limited further spread of the virus (5) (Figure 1). However, in July 2004, RRV was diagnosed in a raccoon northwest of the ORV zone in Lake County, Ohio. As of December 2005, enhanced surveillance had detected 77 rabid raccoons in Lake County and 2 adjacent counties (Geauga and Cuyahoga) (Figures 1 and 2, panel A). These detections raised the question whether current ORV and surveillance strategies are sufficient for containment and reaching the long-term goal of regional elimination of RRV. We used molecular analyses to gain insight into the factors and possible raccoon source populations associated with the breach of the ORV zone in Ohio.

Bottom Line: In 2004, the raccoon rabies virus variant emerged in Ohio beyond an area where oral rabies vaccine had been distributed to prevent westward spread of this variant.Our genetic investigation indicates that this outbreak may have begun several years before 2004 and may have originated within the vaccination zone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

ABSTRACT
In 2004, the raccoon rabies virus variant emerged in Ohio beyond an area where oral rabies vaccine had been distributed to prevent westward spread of this variant. Our genetic investigation indicates that this outbreak may have begun several years before 2004 and may have originated within the vaccination zone.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus