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Milk replacers and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in calves, Japan.

Tsutsui T, Yamamoto T, Hashimoto S, Nonaka T, Nishiguchi A, Kobayashi S - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

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Milk replacers produced from a specific feed factory in Japan were suspected of being associated with a cluster of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infection in calves... In Japan, BSE infection has been confirmed in 32 calves as of the end of May 2007; 13 of these calves were born between December 1995 and August 1996... Of the 200 potential control farms, 154 farms were used as controls... Forty-six farms were excluded; 24 farmers did not respond or could not specify the use of milk replacers; and 22 farms had either closed or farmers did not respond for miscellaneous reasons... Among the 154 control farms, 36 farms (23%) used the milk replacers from the specific factory, 89 farms (58%) used other milk replacers, and 29 farms (19%) did not use milk replacers... We estimated the odds ratio for this risk factor by using logistic regression analysis... Our results indicated that the use of the milk replacers produced by the specific factory was associated with BSE infection (odds ratio [OR] 39.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9–312.9, p = 0.0005)... In Hokkaido, 9 of 10 BSE-infected calves were fed calf concentrates produced in the same feed factory... Given the fact that farmers tend to use milk replacers and calf concentrates from the same company, association of the calf concentrates with the BSE infection may have been masked by the use of specific milk replacers... A possible causal association between the feeding of potentially contaminated milk replacers to calves and the occurrence of BSE has been suggested by several epidemiologic studies... However, no report shows experimental transmission of BSE by use of tallow or milk replacers... This lack of evidence in the literature may suggest that the risk of contracting BSE from processed tallow or milk replacers is low... If MBM is excluded as a source of infection, other transmission mechanisms, such as the feeding of animal fat, may become more important. This research was conducted under a research project for using advanced technologies in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.

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Number of cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by calves’ birth year, Japan.
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Figure 1: Number of cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by calves’ birth year, Japan.

Mentions: In Japan, BSE infection has been confirmed in 32 calves as of the end of May 2007; 13 of these calves were born between December 1995 and August 1996. One BSE-infected calf was born in 1992 and had an atypical BSE phenotype (1). Because no BSE-infected calves were born in 1997 and 1998, we considered that those born in 1995 and 1996 formed an independent temporal cluster (Figure). Epidemiologic investigation showed that all 13 calves were fed milk replacers produced by a specific factory. Ten calves were born in Hokkaido, and 3 were born in the Kanto region, which is ≈800 km away from Hokkaido.


Milk replacers and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in calves, Japan.

Tsutsui T, Yamamoto T, Hashimoto S, Nonaka T, Nishiguchi A, Kobayashi S - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Number of cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by calves’ birth year, Japan.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2570844&req=5

Figure 1: Number of cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by calves’ birth year, Japan.
Mentions: In Japan, BSE infection has been confirmed in 32 calves as of the end of May 2007; 13 of these calves were born between December 1995 and August 1996. One BSE-infected calf was born in 1992 and had an atypical BSE phenotype (1). Because no BSE-infected calves were born in 1997 and 1998, we considered that those born in 1995 and 1996 formed an independent temporal cluster (Figure). Epidemiologic investigation showed that all 13 calves were fed milk replacers produced by a specific factory. Ten calves were born in Hokkaido, and 3 were born in the Kanto region, which is ≈800 km away from Hokkaido.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Milk replacers produced from a specific feed factory in Japan were suspected of being associated with a cluster of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) infection in calves... In Japan, BSE infection has been confirmed in 32 calves as of the end of May 2007; 13 of these calves were born between December 1995 and August 1996... Of the 200 potential control farms, 154 farms were used as controls... Forty-six farms were excluded; 24 farmers did not respond or could not specify the use of milk replacers; and 22 farms had either closed or farmers did not respond for miscellaneous reasons... Among the 154 control farms, 36 farms (23%) used the milk replacers from the specific factory, 89 farms (58%) used other milk replacers, and 29 farms (19%) did not use milk replacers... We estimated the odds ratio for this risk factor by using logistic regression analysis... Our results indicated that the use of the milk replacers produced by the specific factory was associated with BSE infection (odds ratio [OR] 39.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9–312.9, p = 0.0005)... In Hokkaido, 9 of 10 BSE-infected calves were fed calf concentrates produced in the same feed factory... Given the fact that farmers tend to use milk replacers and calf concentrates from the same company, association of the calf concentrates with the BSE infection may have been masked by the use of specific milk replacers... A possible causal association between the feeding of potentially contaminated milk replacers to calves and the occurrence of BSE has been suggested by several epidemiologic studies... However, no report shows experimental transmission of BSE by use of tallow or milk replacers... This lack of evidence in the literature may suggest that the risk of contracting BSE from processed tallow or milk replacers is low... If MBM is excluded as a source of infection, other transmission mechanisms, such as the feeding of animal fat, may become more important. This research was conducted under a research project for using advanced technologies in agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus