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Protective effect of maritime quarantine in South Pacific jurisdictions, 1918-19 influenza pandemic.

McLeod MA, Baker M, Wilson N, Kelly H, Kiedrzynski T, Kool JL - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: We reviewed mortality data of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic for 11 South Pacific Island jurisdictions.Four of these appear to have successfully delayed or excluded the arrival of pandemic influenza by imposing strict maritime quarantine.They also experienced lower excess death rates than the other jurisdictions that did not apply quarantine measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
We reviewed mortality data of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic for 11 South Pacific Island jurisdictions. Four of these appear to have successfully delayed or excluded the arrival of pandemic influenza by imposing strict maritime quarantine. They also experienced lower excess death rates than the other jurisdictions that did not apply quarantine measures.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of attributable mortality rate from pandemic influenza versus time of arrival of influenza into South Pacific Island jurisdictions for the pandemic beginning in 1918. Sources for mortality data with wave-specific crude mortality rates per 1,000 population (r) from pandemic influenza: American Samoa (r = 0) (7,8); Australia (Continental) (r = 2.4) (9); Fiji (r = 52) (2); Guam (r = 45) (8,10); Nauru (r = 160) (3); New Caledonia (r<10) (11); New Zealand (r = 7.4) (12); Samoa (r = 220) (2); Tahiti (r = 190) (13); Tasmania (r = 0.81) (6); and Tonga (r = 840) (2). Sources for date of pandemic influenza arrival data (where different from the source of the mortality data detailed above): Australia (Continental) (5). Blue square, strict maritime quarantine; red diamond, incomplete maritime quarantine; green circle, no border control.
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Figure 1: Comparison of attributable mortality rate from pandemic influenza versus time of arrival of influenza into South Pacific Island jurisdictions for the pandemic beginning in 1918. Sources for mortality data with wave-specific crude mortality rates per 1,000 population (r) from pandemic influenza: American Samoa (r = 0) (7,8); Australia (Continental) (r = 2.4) (9); Fiji (r = 52) (2); Guam (r = 45) (8,10); Nauru (r = 160) (3); New Caledonia (r<10) (11); New Zealand (r = 7.4) (12); Samoa (r = 220) (2); Tahiti (r = 190) (13); Tasmania (r = 0.81) (6); and Tonga (r = 840) (2). Sources for date of pandemic influenza arrival data (where different from the source of the mortality data detailed above): Australia (Continental) (5). Blue square, strict maritime quarantine; red diamond, incomplete maritime quarantine; green circle, no border control.

Mentions: Our literature search identified 35 articles and documents that included information on the use of border control in 11 of 25 South Pacific Island jurisdictions. An additional 21 archival documents were reviewed. Four jurisdictions in this region met our definition of strict maritime quarantine (monitoring all passengers and crew for at least 1 day before disembarking was permitted). These jurisdictions were American Samoa (5 days’ quarantine) and Continental Australia, Tasmania, and New Caledonia (all 7 days’ quarantine). All of these jurisdictions delayed the arrival of the pandemic by implementing their own full maritime quarantine (2–7) (Figure), although in the case of New Caledonia the quarantine was imposed by Australia. In each of these jurisdictions, local health officials credited the success in delaying influenza to strict maritime quarantine.


Protective effect of maritime quarantine in South Pacific jurisdictions, 1918-19 influenza pandemic.

McLeod MA, Baker M, Wilson N, Kelly H, Kiedrzynski T, Kool JL - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Comparison of attributable mortality rate from pandemic influenza versus time of arrival of influenza into South Pacific Island jurisdictions for the pandemic beginning in 1918. Sources for mortality data with wave-specific crude mortality rates per 1,000 population (r) from pandemic influenza: American Samoa (r = 0) (7,8); Australia (Continental) (r = 2.4) (9); Fiji (r = 52) (2); Guam (r = 45) (8,10); Nauru (r = 160) (3); New Caledonia (r<10) (11); New Zealand (r = 7.4) (12); Samoa (r = 220) (2); Tahiti (r = 190) (13); Tasmania (r = 0.81) (6); and Tonga (r = 840) (2). Sources for date of pandemic influenza arrival data (where different from the source of the mortality data detailed above): Australia (Continental) (5). Blue square, strict maritime quarantine; red diamond, incomplete maritime quarantine; green circle, no border control.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2570822&req=5

Figure 1: Comparison of attributable mortality rate from pandemic influenza versus time of arrival of influenza into South Pacific Island jurisdictions for the pandemic beginning in 1918. Sources for mortality data with wave-specific crude mortality rates per 1,000 population (r) from pandemic influenza: American Samoa (r = 0) (7,8); Australia (Continental) (r = 2.4) (9); Fiji (r = 52) (2); Guam (r = 45) (8,10); Nauru (r = 160) (3); New Caledonia (r<10) (11); New Zealand (r = 7.4) (12); Samoa (r = 220) (2); Tahiti (r = 190) (13); Tasmania (r = 0.81) (6); and Tonga (r = 840) (2). Sources for date of pandemic influenza arrival data (where different from the source of the mortality data detailed above): Australia (Continental) (5). Blue square, strict maritime quarantine; red diamond, incomplete maritime quarantine; green circle, no border control.
Mentions: Our literature search identified 35 articles and documents that included information on the use of border control in 11 of 25 South Pacific Island jurisdictions. An additional 21 archival documents were reviewed. Four jurisdictions in this region met our definition of strict maritime quarantine (monitoring all passengers and crew for at least 1 day before disembarking was permitted). These jurisdictions were American Samoa (5 days’ quarantine) and Continental Australia, Tasmania, and New Caledonia (all 7 days’ quarantine). All of these jurisdictions delayed the arrival of the pandemic by implementing their own full maritime quarantine (2–7) (Figure), although in the case of New Caledonia the quarantine was imposed by Australia. In each of these jurisdictions, local health officials credited the success in delaying influenza to strict maritime quarantine.

Bottom Line: We reviewed mortality data of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic for 11 South Pacific Island jurisdictions.Four of these appear to have successfully delayed or excluded the arrival of pandemic influenza by imposing strict maritime quarantine.They also experienced lower excess death rates than the other jurisdictions that did not apply quarantine measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
We reviewed mortality data of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic for 11 South Pacific Island jurisdictions. Four of these appear to have successfully delayed or excluded the arrival of pandemic influenza by imposing strict maritime quarantine. They also experienced lower excess death rates than the other jurisdictions that did not apply quarantine measures.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus