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New insight into the colonization processes of common voles: inferences from molecular and fossil evidence.

Tougard C, Renvoisé E, Petitjean A, Quéré JP - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: Elucidating the colonization processes associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species.Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range.Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR CNRS/uB 5561 Biogéosciences-Dijon, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France. Christelle.Tougard@univ-montp2.fr

ABSTRACT
Elucidating the colonization processes associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species. In Europe, general evolutionary scenarios have been defined from genetic evidence. Recently, these scenarios have been challenged with genetic as well as fossil data. The origins of the modern distributions of most temperate plant and animal species could predate the Last Glacial Maximum. The glacial survival of such populations may have occurred in either southern (Mediterranean regions) and/or northern (Carpathians) refugia. Here, a phylogeographic analysis of a widespread European small mammal (Microtus arvalis) is conducted with a multidisciplinary approach. Genetic, fossil and ecological traits are used to assess the evolutionary history of this vole. Regardless of whether the European distribution of the five previously identified evolutionary lineages is corroborated, this combined analysis brings to light several colonization processes of M. arvalis. The species' dispersal was relatively gradual with glacial survival in small favourable habitats in Western Europe (from Germany to Spain) while in the rest of Europe, because of periglacial conditions, dispersal was less regular with bottleneck events followed by postglacial expansions. Our study demonstrates that the evolutionary history of European temperate small mammals is indeed much more complex than previously suggested. Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range. Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity.

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Divergence time estimates within and among Microtus arvalis lineages.Numbers at nodes (b to k) of the simplified Bayesian tree (A) are times to most recent common ancestors (with 95% confidence) estimated from cytochrome b gene sequences with BEAST. Numbers at node (a) are the divergence time estimate by BEAST (above branch) based on the fossil calibration point (below branch; Miesenheim I, Germany) [29], [30]. Small letters allow one to locate the possible lineage appearance on the δD curve (B) from EPICA Dome C (modified from [75]).
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pone-0003532-g004: Divergence time estimates within and among Microtus arvalis lineages.Numbers at nodes (b to k) of the simplified Bayesian tree (A) are times to most recent common ancestors (with 95% confidence) estimated from cytochrome b gene sequences with BEAST. Numbers at node (a) are the divergence time estimate by BEAST (above branch) based on the fossil calibration point (below branch; Miesenheim I, Germany) [29], [30]. Small letters allow one to locate the possible lineage appearance on the δD curve (B) from EPICA Dome C (modified from [75]).

Mentions: As a consequence of the mismatch distribution analysis for the whole dataset, divergence dates of the main clades (Figure 4) were calculated under a Bayesian relaxed-clock method assuming constant population size. With the first occurrence of M. arvalis at 0.475±0.025 Myr (Miesenheim I, Germany) [29], [30], the mutation rate was estimated at 4.8 substitutions/site/Myr. The W lineage showed the oldest divergence time (0.317 Myr; 95% confidence 0.199–0.440 Myr), while the F lineage showed the most recent one (0.075 Myr; 95% confidence 0.012–0.163 Myr). However, this latter result should be considered with caution because the tree topology was not in agreement with such a recent divergence time. The two F sequences are probably insufficient for inferring reliable time estimates. As for the Spanish clade (data not shown), the most recent common ancestor was 0.086 Myr old (95% confidence 0.037–0.144 Myr).


New insight into the colonization processes of common voles: inferences from molecular and fossil evidence.

Tougard C, Renvoisé E, Petitjean A, Quéré JP - PLoS ONE (2008)

Divergence time estimates within and among Microtus arvalis lineages.Numbers at nodes (b to k) of the simplified Bayesian tree (A) are times to most recent common ancestors (with 95% confidence) estimated from cytochrome b gene sequences with BEAST. Numbers at node (a) are the divergence time estimate by BEAST (above branch) based on the fossil calibration point (below branch; Miesenheim I, Germany) [29], [30]. Small letters allow one to locate the possible lineage appearance on the δD curve (B) from EPICA Dome C (modified from [75]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2570793&req=5

pone-0003532-g004: Divergence time estimates within and among Microtus arvalis lineages.Numbers at nodes (b to k) of the simplified Bayesian tree (A) are times to most recent common ancestors (with 95% confidence) estimated from cytochrome b gene sequences with BEAST. Numbers at node (a) are the divergence time estimate by BEAST (above branch) based on the fossil calibration point (below branch; Miesenheim I, Germany) [29], [30]. Small letters allow one to locate the possible lineage appearance on the δD curve (B) from EPICA Dome C (modified from [75]).
Mentions: As a consequence of the mismatch distribution analysis for the whole dataset, divergence dates of the main clades (Figure 4) were calculated under a Bayesian relaxed-clock method assuming constant population size. With the first occurrence of M. arvalis at 0.475±0.025 Myr (Miesenheim I, Germany) [29], [30], the mutation rate was estimated at 4.8 substitutions/site/Myr. The W lineage showed the oldest divergence time (0.317 Myr; 95% confidence 0.199–0.440 Myr), while the F lineage showed the most recent one (0.075 Myr; 95% confidence 0.012–0.163 Myr). However, this latter result should be considered with caution because the tree topology was not in agreement with such a recent divergence time. The two F sequences are probably insufficient for inferring reliable time estimates. As for the Spanish clade (data not shown), the most recent common ancestor was 0.086 Myr old (95% confidence 0.037–0.144 Myr).

Bottom Line: Elucidating the colonization processes associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species.Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range.Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR CNRS/uB 5561 Biogéosciences-Dijon, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France. Christelle.Tougard@univ-montp2.fr

ABSTRACT
Elucidating the colonization processes associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species. In Europe, general evolutionary scenarios have been defined from genetic evidence. Recently, these scenarios have been challenged with genetic as well as fossil data. The origins of the modern distributions of most temperate plant and animal species could predate the Last Glacial Maximum. The glacial survival of such populations may have occurred in either southern (Mediterranean regions) and/or northern (Carpathians) refugia. Here, a phylogeographic analysis of a widespread European small mammal (Microtus arvalis) is conducted with a multidisciplinary approach. Genetic, fossil and ecological traits are used to assess the evolutionary history of this vole. Regardless of whether the European distribution of the five previously identified evolutionary lineages is corroborated, this combined analysis brings to light several colonization processes of M. arvalis. The species' dispersal was relatively gradual with glacial survival in small favourable habitats in Western Europe (from Germany to Spain) while in the rest of Europe, because of periglacial conditions, dispersal was less regular with bottleneck events followed by postglacial expansions. Our study demonstrates that the evolutionary history of European temperate small mammals is indeed much more complex than previously suggested. Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range. Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus