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New insight into the colonization processes of common voles: inferences from molecular and fossil evidence.

Tougard C, Renvoisé E, Petitjean A, Quéré JP - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: Elucidating the colonization processes associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species.Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range.Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR CNRS/uB 5561 Biogéosciences-Dijon, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France. Christelle.Tougard@univ-montp2.fr

ABSTRACT
Elucidating the colonization processes associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species. In Europe, general evolutionary scenarios have been defined from genetic evidence. Recently, these scenarios have been challenged with genetic as well as fossil data. The origins of the modern distributions of most temperate plant and animal species could predate the Last Glacial Maximum. The glacial survival of such populations may have occurred in either southern (Mediterranean regions) and/or northern (Carpathians) refugia. Here, a phylogeographic analysis of a widespread European small mammal (Microtus arvalis) is conducted with a multidisciplinary approach. Genetic, fossil and ecological traits are used to assess the evolutionary history of this vole. Regardless of whether the European distribution of the five previously identified evolutionary lineages is corroborated, this combined analysis brings to light several colonization processes of M. arvalis. The species' dispersal was relatively gradual with glacial survival in small favourable habitats in Western Europe (from Germany to Spain) while in the rest of Europe, because of periglacial conditions, dispersal was less regular with bottleneck events followed by postglacial expansions. Our study demonstrates that the evolutionary history of European temperate small mammals is indeed much more complex than previously suggested. Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range. Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity.

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Bayesian tree reconstructed from cytochrome b gene sequences of Microtus arvalis.Individual labels are detailed in Table S1. The numbers at nodes refer to ML bootstrap percentages (above branches) and BA posterior probabilities (below branches). The five main evolutionary lineages as previously mentioned [34] are indicated on the right.
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pone-0003532-g002: Bayesian tree reconstructed from cytochrome b gene sequences of Microtus arvalis.Individual labels are detailed in Table S1. The numbers at nodes refer to ML bootstrap percentages (above branches) and BA posterior probabilities (below branches). The five main evolutionary lineages as previously mentioned [34] are indicated on the right.

Mentions: Phylogenetic analyses using the maximum-likelihood method (ML) and Bayesian approach (BA) provided congruent tree topologies for both cytb and CR dataset (Figure 2 and Figure S1). The cytb topology reflected the geographic origin of the specimens, and the five main evolutionary lineages of Fink et al. [33] and Heckel et al. [34] were found: W (France, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain), F (Germany), I (Switzerland, Italy), E (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Finland) and C (France, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Denmark). A high consistency was observed for the C, E, and I lineages with previously published analyses, whereas the W and F lineages seemed more closely related. However, the WF cluster and the W lineage were the least supported clades, with ML bootstrap percentages (BP) lower than 50%, and BA posterior probabilities (PP) between 0.50 and 0.80. Alternative hypotheses were investigated using the Shimodaira & Hasegawa test [39]. Over the 105 possible tree topologies among the five lineages, 34 trees were not significantly worse than the highest likelihood tree at the 5% confidence level (0.46<P<1; Table S4). The best ML tree placed the C lineage as the first ramification of the M. arvalis lineages, and the I and E lineages as the sister groups of the WF and WFI clusters, respectively. As such, it differed from the tree shown in Figure 2 (P = 0.976) and previously published trees (P = 0.993) [33], [34]. These topology differences can be explained by the low number of sequences clustered in the F and I lineages (respectively, 2 and 5). Phylogenetic analyses displayed a substructure within the W lineage (cytb: BP<50%; 0.54<PP<0.80; CR: 81%<BP<85%; PP = 0.87): (i) a northeastern (NE) group with specimens from NE France, Belgium, Germany and Switzerland; and (ii) a southwestern (SW) group with specimens from SW France and Spain. The Spanish common voles formed a monophyletic clade (92% BP, and 0.99 PP) that appeared to be the last offshoot of the SW group. This hierarchical phylogeographic structure of the W lineage had partly been revealed in previously published analyses with a smaller dataset [33], [34]. Conversely, the C and E lineages had cytb star-like topologies (Figure 2).


New insight into the colonization processes of common voles: inferences from molecular and fossil evidence.

Tougard C, Renvoisé E, Petitjean A, Quéré JP - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bayesian tree reconstructed from cytochrome b gene sequences of Microtus arvalis.Individual labels are detailed in Table S1. The numbers at nodes refer to ML bootstrap percentages (above branches) and BA posterior probabilities (below branches). The five main evolutionary lineages as previously mentioned [34] are indicated on the right.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2570793&req=5

pone-0003532-g002: Bayesian tree reconstructed from cytochrome b gene sequences of Microtus arvalis.Individual labels are detailed in Table S1. The numbers at nodes refer to ML bootstrap percentages (above branches) and BA posterior probabilities (below branches). The five main evolutionary lineages as previously mentioned [34] are indicated on the right.
Mentions: Phylogenetic analyses using the maximum-likelihood method (ML) and Bayesian approach (BA) provided congruent tree topologies for both cytb and CR dataset (Figure 2 and Figure S1). The cytb topology reflected the geographic origin of the specimens, and the five main evolutionary lineages of Fink et al. [33] and Heckel et al. [34] were found: W (France, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain), F (Germany), I (Switzerland, Italy), E (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Finland) and C (France, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Denmark). A high consistency was observed for the C, E, and I lineages with previously published analyses, whereas the W and F lineages seemed more closely related. However, the WF cluster and the W lineage were the least supported clades, with ML bootstrap percentages (BP) lower than 50%, and BA posterior probabilities (PP) between 0.50 and 0.80. Alternative hypotheses were investigated using the Shimodaira & Hasegawa test [39]. Over the 105 possible tree topologies among the five lineages, 34 trees were not significantly worse than the highest likelihood tree at the 5% confidence level (0.46<P<1; Table S4). The best ML tree placed the C lineage as the first ramification of the M. arvalis lineages, and the I and E lineages as the sister groups of the WF and WFI clusters, respectively. As such, it differed from the tree shown in Figure 2 (P = 0.976) and previously published trees (P = 0.993) [33], [34]. These topology differences can be explained by the low number of sequences clustered in the F and I lineages (respectively, 2 and 5). Phylogenetic analyses displayed a substructure within the W lineage (cytb: BP<50%; 0.54<PP<0.80; CR: 81%<BP<85%; PP = 0.87): (i) a northeastern (NE) group with specimens from NE France, Belgium, Germany and Switzerland; and (ii) a southwestern (SW) group with specimens from SW France and Spain. The Spanish common voles formed a monophyletic clade (92% BP, and 0.99 PP) that appeared to be the last offshoot of the SW group. This hierarchical phylogeographic structure of the W lineage had partly been revealed in previously published analyses with a smaller dataset [33], [34]. Conversely, the C and E lineages had cytb star-like topologies (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Elucidating the colonization processes associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species.Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range.Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UMR CNRS/uB 5561 Biogéosciences-Dijon, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France. Christelle.Tougard@univ-montp2.fr

ABSTRACT
Elucidating the colonization processes associated with Quaternary climatic cycles is important in order to understand the distribution of biodiversity and the evolutionary potential of temperate plant and animal species. In Europe, general evolutionary scenarios have been defined from genetic evidence. Recently, these scenarios have been challenged with genetic as well as fossil data. The origins of the modern distributions of most temperate plant and animal species could predate the Last Glacial Maximum. The glacial survival of such populations may have occurred in either southern (Mediterranean regions) and/or northern (Carpathians) refugia. Here, a phylogeographic analysis of a widespread European small mammal (Microtus arvalis) is conducted with a multidisciplinary approach. Genetic, fossil and ecological traits are used to assess the evolutionary history of this vole. Regardless of whether the European distribution of the five previously identified evolutionary lineages is corroborated, this combined analysis brings to light several colonization processes of M. arvalis. The species' dispersal was relatively gradual with glacial survival in small favourable habitats in Western Europe (from Germany to Spain) while in the rest of Europe, because of periglacial conditions, dispersal was less regular with bottleneck events followed by postglacial expansions. Our study demonstrates that the evolutionary history of European temperate small mammals is indeed much more complex than previously suggested. Species can experience heterogeneous evolutionary histories over their geographic range. Multidisciplinary approaches should therefore be preferentially chosen in prospective studies, the better to understand the impact of climatic change on past and present biodiversity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus