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Cryopreservation/transplantation of ovarian tissue and in vitro maturation of follicles and oocytes: challenges for fertility preservation.

Varghese AC, du Plessis SS, Falcone T, Agarwal A - Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. (2008)

Bottom Line: If these technologies are to become widely accepted, they need to be safe, easy to perform and must obtain favorable results.The generation of healthy eggs with the normal genetic complement and the ability to develop into viable and healthy embryos requires tight regulation of oocyte development and maturation.Novel freezing techniques such as vitrification, along with whole ovary cryopreservation and three-dimensional follicle cultures, have shown favorable outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USA. alexcv2008@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and in vitro follicle maturation are two emerging techniques for fertility preservation, especially in cancer patients. These treatment regimes are opening up more options and allow for more suitable choices to preserve fertility according to the patient's specific circumstances. If these technologies are to become widely accepted, they need to be safe, easy to perform and must obtain favorable results. The generation of healthy eggs with the normal genetic complement and the ability to develop into viable and healthy embryos requires tight regulation of oocyte development and maturation. Novel freezing techniques such as vitrification, along with whole ovary cryopreservation and three-dimensional follicle cultures, have shown favorable outcomes. The scope of this article is to take a comprehensively look at the challenges still faced in order for these novel technologies to be routinely employed with the aim of successful fertility preservation.

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IVM and cryopreservation of oocytes.
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Figure 2: IVM and cryopreservation of oocytes.

Mentions: Keeping pace with efforts to refine in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques, active research is continuing in the area of folliculogenesis and in vitro oocyte maturation. Progress in this field will benefit patients who have stored ovarian tissues prior to debilitating cancer treatments. This also may allow patients a realistic chance of conceiving a child at an advanced age (e.g., career-orientated women who wish to postpone childbearing) if ovarian material was harvested from the ovary at an early age and stored. Healthy immature oocytes can be retrieved at a later stage and matured in vitro for IVF. Moreover, compared to conventional IVF, the advantages of this approach include no hormonal down-regulation or hormone injections in regularly cycling women; minimal stimulation with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in women with polycystic ovaries (PCO); no ovulation injection, thereby minimizing any side effects and discomforts; and reduction in treatment span and interference with daily life combined with less emotional stress. IVM of primordial follicles also would avoid the possible risk of re-transmission of some cancers, such as hematological malignancies [41] and breast cancer [42], by ovarian grafts as oocytes do not contain cancerous cells. However, the growth and IVM of primordial follicles remains a major challenge for reproductive biologists (Figure 2).


Cryopreservation/transplantation of ovarian tissue and in vitro maturation of follicles and oocytes: challenges for fertility preservation.

Varghese AC, du Plessis SS, Falcone T, Agarwal A - Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. (2008)

IVM and cryopreservation of oocytes.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2567323&req=5

Figure 2: IVM and cryopreservation of oocytes.
Mentions: Keeping pace with efforts to refine in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques, active research is continuing in the area of folliculogenesis and in vitro oocyte maturation. Progress in this field will benefit patients who have stored ovarian tissues prior to debilitating cancer treatments. This also may allow patients a realistic chance of conceiving a child at an advanced age (e.g., career-orientated women who wish to postpone childbearing) if ovarian material was harvested from the ovary at an early age and stored. Healthy immature oocytes can be retrieved at a later stage and matured in vitro for IVF. Moreover, compared to conventional IVF, the advantages of this approach include no hormonal down-regulation or hormone injections in regularly cycling women; minimal stimulation with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in women with polycystic ovaries (PCO); no ovulation injection, thereby minimizing any side effects and discomforts; and reduction in treatment span and interference with daily life combined with less emotional stress. IVM of primordial follicles also would avoid the possible risk of re-transmission of some cancers, such as hematological malignancies [41] and breast cancer [42], by ovarian grafts as oocytes do not contain cancerous cells. However, the growth and IVM of primordial follicles remains a major challenge for reproductive biologists (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: If these technologies are to become widely accepted, they need to be safe, easy to perform and must obtain favorable results.The generation of healthy eggs with the normal genetic complement and the ability to develop into viable and healthy embryos requires tight regulation of oocyte development and maturation.Novel freezing techniques such as vitrification, along with whole ovary cryopreservation and three-dimensional follicle cultures, have shown favorable outcomes.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Center for Reproductive Medicine, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USA. alexcv2008@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue and in vitro follicle maturation are two emerging techniques for fertility preservation, especially in cancer patients. These treatment regimes are opening up more options and allow for more suitable choices to preserve fertility according to the patient's specific circumstances. If these technologies are to become widely accepted, they need to be safe, easy to perform and must obtain favorable results. The generation of healthy eggs with the normal genetic complement and the ability to develop into viable and healthy embryos requires tight regulation of oocyte development and maturation. Novel freezing techniques such as vitrification, along with whole ovary cryopreservation and three-dimensional follicle cultures, have shown favorable outcomes. The scope of this article is to take a comprehensively look at the challenges still faced in order for these novel technologies to be routinely employed with the aim of successful fertility preservation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus