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A community effectiveness trial of strategies promoting intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso.

Gies S, Coulibaly SO, Ouattara FT, Ky C, Brabin BJ, D'Alessandro U - Malar. J. (2008)

Bottom Line: Peripheral (33.3%) and placental (30.3%) parasite rates were significantly higher in the control arm compared to Intervention B (peripheral: 20.1% OR 0.50 95%CI 0.37-0.69 p = 0.001; placental: 20.5% OR 0.59 95%CI 0.44-0.78 p = 0.002) but did not differ between Intervention A (17.4%; 18.1%) and Intervention B (20.1; 20.5%) (peripheral: OR 0.84 95%CI 0.60-1.18 p = 0.280; placental: OR 0.86 95%CI 0.58-1.29 p = 0.430).Despite lower prevalence of malaria infection this did not translate into a significant difference in maternal anaemia or birth weight.This data provides evidence that, as with immunization programmes, extremely high coverage is essential for effectiveness.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Epidemiology and Control of Parasitic Diseases Unit, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. sgies@itg.be

ABSTRACT

Background: Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP) is currently being scaled up in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite high antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance, coverage with the required two doses of SP remains low. The study investigated whether a targeted community-based promotion campaign to increase ANC attendance and SP uptake could effectively improve pregnancy outcomes in the community.

Methods: Between 2004 and 2006 twelve health centres in Boromo Health District, Burkina Faso were involved in this study. Four were strategically assigned to community promotion in addition to IPTp-SP (Intervention A) and eight were randomly allocated to either IPTp-SP (Intervention B) or weekly chloroquine (Control). Primi- and secundigravidae were enrolled at village level and thick films and packed cell volume (PCV) taken at 32 weeks gestation and at delivery. Placental smears were prepared and newborns weighed. Primary outcomes were peripheral parasitaemia during pregnancy and at delivery, placental malaria, maternal anaemia, mean and low birth weight. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of women with > or = 3 ANC visits and > or = 2 doses of SP. Intervention groups were compared using logistic and linear regression with linearized variance estimations to correct for the cluster-randomized design.

Results: SP uptake (> or = 2 doses) was higher with (Intervention A: 70%) than without promotion (Intervention B: 49%) (OR 2.45 95%CI 1.25-4.82 p = 0.014). Peripheral (33.3%) and placental (30.3%) parasite rates were significantly higher in the control arm compared to Intervention B (peripheral: 20.1% OR 0.50 95%CI 0.37-0.69 p = 0.001; placental: 20.5% OR 0.59 95%CI 0.44-0.78 p = 0.002) but did not differ between Intervention A (17.4%; 18.1%) and Intervention B (20.1; 20.5%) (peripheral: OR 0.84 95%CI 0.60-1.18 p = 0.280; placental: OR 0.86 95%CI 0.58-1.29 p = 0.430). Mean PCV and birth weight and prevalence of anaemia and low birth weight did not differ between study arms.

Conclusion: The promotional campaign resulted in a major increase in IPTp-coverage, with two thirds of women at delivery having received > or = 2 SP. Despite lower prevalence of malaria infection this did not translate into a significant difference in maternal anaemia or birth weight. This data provides evidence that, as with immunization programmes, extremely high coverage is essential for effectiveness. This critical threshold of coverage needs to be defined, possibly on a regional basis.

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Mean PCV during pregnancy and at delivery by study arm, Boromo Health District, Burkina Faso (2004–2006). Intervention A = blue ●; Intervention B = green ■; Control = red ∆. Numbers next to symbols represent point estimates of the mean; error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
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Figure 3: Mean PCV during pregnancy and at delivery by study arm, Boromo Health District, Burkina Faso (2004–2006). Intervention A = blue ●; Intervention B = green ■; Control = red ∆. Numbers next to symbols represent point estimates of the mean; error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.

Mentions: Overall mean PCV was 32.2 (95%CI 31.6–32.8) at 32 weeks gestation and 34.4 (95%CI 33.6–35.2) at delivery and was lower, though not significantly, in the control arm compared with the two intervention arms combined (Figure 3).


A community effectiveness trial of strategies promoting intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso.

Gies S, Coulibaly SO, Ouattara FT, Ky C, Brabin BJ, D'Alessandro U - Malar. J. (2008)

Mean PCV during pregnancy and at delivery by study arm, Boromo Health District, Burkina Faso (2004–2006). Intervention A = blue ●; Intervention B = green ■; Control = red ∆. Numbers next to symbols represent point estimates of the mean; error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2563022&req=5

Figure 3: Mean PCV during pregnancy and at delivery by study arm, Boromo Health District, Burkina Faso (2004–2006). Intervention A = blue ●; Intervention B = green ■; Control = red ∆. Numbers next to symbols represent point estimates of the mean; error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
Mentions: Overall mean PCV was 32.2 (95%CI 31.6–32.8) at 32 weeks gestation and 34.4 (95%CI 33.6–35.2) at delivery and was lower, though not significantly, in the control arm compared with the two intervention arms combined (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: Peripheral (33.3%) and placental (30.3%) parasite rates were significantly higher in the control arm compared to Intervention B (peripheral: 20.1% OR 0.50 95%CI 0.37-0.69 p = 0.001; placental: 20.5% OR 0.59 95%CI 0.44-0.78 p = 0.002) but did not differ between Intervention A (17.4%; 18.1%) and Intervention B (20.1; 20.5%) (peripheral: OR 0.84 95%CI 0.60-1.18 p = 0.280; placental: OR 0.86 95%CI 0.58-1.29 p = 0.430).Despite lower prevalence of malaria infection this did not translate into a significant difference in maternal anaemia or birth weight.This data provides evidence that, as with immunization programmes, extremely high coverage is essential for effectiveness.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Epidemiology and Control of Parasitic Diseases Unit, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium. sgies@itg.be

ABSTRACT

Background: Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP) is currently being scaled up in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite high antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance, coverage with the required two doses of SP remains low. The study investigated whether a targeted community-based promotion campaign to increase ANC attendance and SP uptake could effectively improve pregnancy outcomes in the community.

Methods: Between 2004 and 2006 twelve health centres in Boromo Health District, Burkina Faso were involved in this study. Four were strategically assigned to community promotion in addition to IPTp-SP (Intervention A) and eight were randomly allocated to either IPTp-SP (Intervention B) or weekly chloroquine (Control). Primi- and secundigravidae were enrolled at village level and thick films and packed cell volume (PCV) taken at 32 weeks gestation and at delivery. Placental smears were prepared and newborns weighed. Primary outcomes were peripheral parasitaemia during pregnancy and at delivery, placental malaria, maternal anaemia, mean and low birth weight. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of women with > or = 3 ANC visits and > or = 2 doses of SP. Intervention groups were compared using logistic and linear regression with linearized variance estimations to correct for the cluster-randomized design.

Results: SP uptake (> or = 2 doses) was higher with (Intervention A: 70%) than without promotion (Intervention B: 49%) (OR 2.45 95%CI 1.25-4.82 p = 0.014). Peripheral (33.3%) and placental (30.3%) parasite rates were significantly higher in the control arm compared to Intervention B (peripheral: 20.1% OR 0.50 95%CI 0.37-0.69 p = 0.001; placental: 20.5% OR 0.59 95%CI 0.44-0.78 p = 0.002) but did not differ between Intervention A (17.4%; 18.1%) and Intervention B (20.1; 20.5%) (peripheral: OR 0.84 95%CI 0.60-1.18 p = 0.280; placental: OR 0.86 95%CI 0.58-1.29 p = 0.430). Mean PCV and birth weight and prevalence of anaemia and low birth weight did not differ between study arms.

Conclusion: The promotional campaign resulted in a major increase in IPTp-coverage, with two thirds of women at delivery having received > or = 2 SP. Despite lower prevalence of malaria infection this did not translate into a significant difference in maternal anaemia or birth weight. This data provides evidence that, as with immunization programmes, extremely high coverage is essential for effectiveness. This critical threshold of coverage needs to be defined, possibly on a regional basis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus