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Diverse contexts of zoonotic transmission of simian foamy viruses in Asia.

Jones-Engel L, May CC, Engel GA, Steinkraus KA, Schillaci MA, Fuentes A, Rompis A, Chalise MK, Aggimarangsee N, Feeroz MM, Grant R, Allan JS, Putra A, Wandia IN, Watanabe R, Kuller L, Thongsawat S, Chaiwarith R, Kyes RC, Linial ML - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Bottom Line: In Asia, contact between persons and nonhuman primates is widespread in multiple occupational and nonoccupational contexts.Phylogenetic analysis showed that SFV from 3 infected persons was similar to that from the nonhuman primate populations with which the infected persons reported contact.Thus, SFV infections are likely to be prevalent among persons who live or work near nonhuman primates in Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of International Programs, National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. jonesengel@bart.rprc.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
In Asia, contact between persons and nonhuman primates is widespread in multiple occupational and nonoccupational contexts. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses that are prevalent in all species of nonhuman primates. To determine SFV prevalence in humans, we tested 305 persons who lived or worked around nonhuman primates in several South and Southeast Asian countries; 8 (2.6%) were confirmed SFV positive by Western blot and, for some, by PCR. The interspecies interactions that likely resulted in virus transmission were diverse; 5 macaque taxa were implicated as a potential source of infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SFV from 3 infected persons was similar to that from the nonhuman primate populations with which the infected persons reported contact. Thus, SFV infections are likely to be prevalent among persons who live or work near nonhuman primates in Asia.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Western blot assays using human serum. Dilutions of human serum (lanes 2–11) or a foamy virus–-positive Macaca mulatta MBG8 (lane 1) were used to probe filter strips containing equal amounts of lysates from simian foamy virus–infected cells (from M. fascicularis; i lanes) or noninfected cells (u lanes). Individual strips were developed by using TMB reagent (3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine; Promega, Madison, WI, USA). The positions of the viral proteins Gag and Bet are indicated. Lanes 10 and 11 show the range of reactivity seen with negative serum; lane 10 shows serum with nonspecific reactivity to proteins of approximately the same size as viral proteins; lane 11 shows serum negative for both lysates.
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Figure 1: Western blot assays using human serum. Dilutions of human serum (lanes 2–11) or a foamy virus–-positive Macaca mulatta MBG8 (lane 1) were used to probe filter strips containing equal amounts of lysates from simian foamy virus–infected cells (from M. fascicularis; i lanes) or noninfected cells (u lanes). Individual strips were developed by using TMB reagent (3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine; Promega, Madison, WI, USA). The positions of the viral proteins Gag and Bet are indicated. Lanes 10 and 11 show the range of reactivity seen with negative serum; lane 10 shows serum with nonspecific reactivity to proteins of approximately the same size as viral proteins; lane 11 shows serum negative for both lysates.

Mentions: Of 305 serum samples analyzed, 211 samples from Thailand were initially screened with bioplex at the Washington National Primate Research Center (22), and 146 of these samples had negative results. The remaining 65 samples from Thailand and all 94 samples from Nepal, Indonesia, and Bangladesh were screened by ELISA by using GST control antigen and GST-Gag fusion protein. Of these 159 samples, reactivity of 25 exceeded GST background on ELISA, and these were further tested with WB by using SFV-infected or SFV-noninfected tissue culture cell lysates. The major reactive viral protein is the structural protein Gag. Some foamy virus–infected serum samples also react with the viral accessory protein Bet. A total of 8 (2.6%) human samples were confirmed positive by using SFV-infected tissue culture cell or noninfected cell control lysates, which all react with the Gag protein. Gag appears as a characteristic doublet of 68 and 71 kDa (Figure 1, samples 2–9). Antibody to Bet could be detected only in HCM2, HAD3, and NH2. Although reactivity of HMS14 antiserum is weak, this serum was able to neutralize SFV but not the chimpanzee-derived primate foamy virus, which confirmed infection (data not shown). All other human serum samples tested were negative for all viral proteins. Two negative examples are shown in Figure 1: HCJ7, which yielded the same background proteins in noninfected and infected lysate, and BGH1, which did not react with any proteins. Human serum samples were also tested by WB by using GST and GST-Gag protein (15). However, because many of the human samples reacted with GST protein, the recombinant protein WB assays were generally inconclusive (data not shown).


Diverse contexts of zoonotic transmission of simian foamy viruses in Asia.

Jones-Engel L, May CC, Engel GA, Steinkraus KA, Schillaci MA, Fuentes A, Rompis A, Chalise MK, Aggimarangsee N, Feeroz MM, Grant R, Allan JS, Putra A, Wandia IN, Watanabe R, Kuller L, Thongsawat S, Chaiwarith R, Kyes RC, Linial ML - Emerging Infect. Dis. (2008)

Western blot assays using human serum. Dilutions of human serum (lanes 2–11) or a foamy virus–-positive Macaca mulatta MBG8 (lane 1) were used to probe filter strips containing equal amounts of lysates from simian foamy virus–infected cells (from M. fascicularis; i lanes) or noninfected cells (u lanes). Individual strips were developed by using TMB reagent (3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine; Promega, Madison, WI, USA). The positions of the viral proteins Gag and Bet are indicated. Lanes 10 and 11 show the range of reactivity seen with negative serum; lane 10 shows serum with nonspecific reactivity to proteins of approximately the same size as viral proteins; lane 11 shows serum negative for both lysates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2562341&req=5

Figure 1: Western blot assays using human serum. Dilutions of human serum (lanes 2–11) or a foamy virus–-positive Macaca mulatta MBG8 (lane 1) were used to probe filter strips containing equal amounts of lysates from simian foamy virus–infected cells (from M. fascicularis; i lanes) or noninfected cells (u lanes). Individual strips were developed by using TMB reagent (3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine; Promega, Madison, WI, USA). The positions of the viral proteins Gag and Bet are indicated. Lanes 10 and 11 show the range of reactivity seen with negative serum; lane 10 shows serum with nonspecific reactivity to proteins of approximately the same size as viral proteins; lane 11 shows serum negative for both lysates.
Mentions: Of 305 serum samples analyzed, 211 samples from Thailand were initially screened with bioplex at the Washington National Primate Research Center (22), and 146 of these samples had negative results. The remaining 65 samples from Thailand and all 94 samples from Nepal, Indonesia, and Bangladesh were screened by ELISA by using GST control antigen and GST-Gag fusion protein. Of these 159 samples, reactivity of 25 exceeded GST background on ELISA, and these were further tested with WB by using SFV-infected or SFV-noninfected tissue culture cell lysates. The major reactive viral protein is the structural protein Gag. Some foamy virus–infected serum samples also react with the viral accessory protein Bet. A total of 8 (2.6%) human samples were confirmed positive by using SFV-infected tissue culture cell or noninfected cell control lysates, which all react with the Gag protein. Gag appears as a characteristic doublet of 68 and 71 kDa (Figure 1, samples 2–9). Antibody to Bet could be detected only in HCM2, HAD3, and NH2. Although reactivity of HMS14 antiserum is weak, this serum was able to neutralize SFV but not the chimpanzee-derived primate foamy virus, which confirmed infection (data not shown). All other human serum samples tested were negative for all viral proteins. Two negative examples are shown in Figure 1: HCJ7, which yielded the same background proteins in noninfected and infected lysate, and BGH1, which did not react with any proteins. Human serum samples were also tested by WB by using GST and GST-Gag protein (15). However, because many of the human samples reacted with GST protein, the recombinant protein WB assays were generally inconclusive (data not shown).

Bottom Line: In Asia, contact between persons and nonhuman primates is widespread in multiple occupational and nonoccupational contexts.Phylogenetic analysis showed that SFV from 3 infected persons was similar to that from the nonhuman primate populations with which the infected persons reported contact.Thus, SFV infections are likely to be prevalent among persons who live or work near nonhuman primates in Asia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of International Programs, National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. jonesengel@bart.rprc.washington.edu

ABSTRACT
In Asia, contact between persons and nonhuman primates is widespread in multiple occupational and nonoccupational contexts. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses that are prevalent in all species of nonhuman primates. To determine SFV prevalence in humans, we tested 305 persons who lived or worked around nonhuman primates in several South and Southeast Asian countries; 8 (2.6%) were confirmed SFV positive by Western blot and, for some, by PCR. The interspecies interactions that likely resulted in virus transmission were diverse; 5 macaque taxa were implicated as a potential source of infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SFV from 3 infected persons was similar to that from the nonhuman primate populations with which the infected persons reported contact. Thus, SFV infections are likely to be prevalent among persons who live or work near nonhuman primates in Asia.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus