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The burden of trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan.

King JD, Ngondi J, Gatpan G, Lopidia B, Becknell S, Emerson PM - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2008)

Bottom Line: Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was 14.6% (95% CI, 10.9-18.3) in adults over 14 years of age; 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.3) in children 1-14 years of age; and 8.4% (95% CI, 5.5-11.3) overall.The prevalence of corneal opacity in persons over 14 years of age with TT was 6.4% (95% CI, 4.5-8.3).The high prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis confirms the severe burden of blinding trachoma found in other post-conflict areas of Southern Sudan.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. jonathan.king@emory.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Blindness due to trachoma is avoidable through Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial hygiene and Environmental improvements (SAFE). Recent surveys have shown trachoma to be a serious cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. We conducted this survey in Ayod County of Jonglei State to estimate the need for intervention activities to eliminate blinding trachoma.

Methodology and findings: A cross-sectional two-stage cluster random survey was conducted in November 2006. All residents of selected households were clinically assessed for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading scheme. A total of 2,335 people from 392 households were examined, of whom 1,107 were over 14 years of age. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children 1-9 years of age was: trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) = 80.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.9-86.3); trachomatous inflammation intense (TI) = 60.7% (95% CI, 54.6-66.8); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma) = 88.3% (95% CI, 83.7-92.9). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was 14.6% (95% CI, 10.9-18.3) in adults over 14 years of age; 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.3) in children 1-14 years of age; and 8.4% (95% CI, 5.5-11.3) overall. The prevalence of corneal opacity in persons over 14 years of age with TT was 6.4% (95% CI, 4.5-8.3). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of trachoma signs between genders. Trachoma affected almost all households surveyed: 384/392 (98.0%) had at least one person with active trachoma and 130 (33.2%) had at least one person with trichiasis.

Conclusions: Trachoma is an unnecessary public health problem in Ayod. The high prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis confirms the severe burden of blinding trachoma found in other post-conflict areas of Southern Sudan. Based on WHO recommended thresholds, all aspects of the SAFE strategy are indicated to eliminate blinding trachoma in Ayod.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Age Distribution of Survey Population, by sex.
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pntd-0000299-g003: Age Distribution of Survey Population, by sex.

Mentions: We examined 2,335 participants out of a total of 2,605 residents from 392 households in twenty villages of Ayod County, an 89.6% recruitment rate. All 2,335 participants were examined for TT and CO although lid eversion was not possible on eight participants due to recent trichiasis surgery giving a data set of 2,327 individuals. The mean household size was 7.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.20–8.08) persons per household. Infants less than one year old comprised 3.9% of the examined residents and children 1–9 years of age comprised 36.7%. Persons aged 10 to 14 years made up 10.9% of examined residents and 48.4% were over fourteen years of age. The population distribution of the sample is shown in Figure 3. Mean age of the sample population was 18.8 (standard deviation [SD] 0.32) years. Females comprised 53.6% of our sample and 61.8% of participants over fourteen years of age. Among the 270 registered people who were not available for examination, 44.2% were males over fourteen years of age. However, there was no statistically significant difference between age and gender distributions of the examined population and the total population registered.


The burden of trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan.

King JD, Ngondi J, Gatpan G, Lopidia B, Becknell S, Emerson PM - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2008)

Age Distribution of Survey Population, by sex.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2553487&req=5

pntd-0000299-g003: Age Distribution of Survey Population, by sex.
Mentions: We examined 2,335 participants out of a total of 2,605 residents from 392 households in twenty villages of Ayod County, an 89.6% recruitment rate. All 2,335 participants were examined for TT and CO although lid eversion was not possible on eight participants due to recent trichiasis surgery giving a data set of 2,327 individuals. The mean household size was 7.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.20–8.08) persons per household. Infants less than one year old comprised 3.9% of the examined residents and children 1–9 years of age comprised 36.7%. Persons aged 10 to 14 years made up 10.9% of examined residents and 48.4% were over fourteen years of age. The population distribution of the sample is shown in Figure 3. Mean age of the sample population was 18.8 (standard deviation [SD] 0.32) years. Females comprised 53.6% of our sample and 61.8% of participants over fourteen years of age. Among the 270 registered people who were not available for examination, 44.2% were males over fourteen years of age. However, there was no statistically significant difference between age and gender distributions of the examined population and the total population registered.

Bottom Line: Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was 14.6% (95% CI, 10.9-18.3) in adults over 14 years of age; 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.3) in children 1-14 years of age; and 8.4% (95% CI, 5.5-11.3) overall.The prevalence of corneal opacity in persons over 14 years of age with TT was 6.4% (95% CI, 4.5-8.3).The high prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis confirms the severe burden of blinding trachoma found in other post-conflict areas of Southern Sudan.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. jonathan.king@emory.edu

ABSTRACT

Background: Blindness due to trachoma is avoidable through Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial hygiene and Environmental improvements (SAFE). Recent surveys have shown trachoma to be a serious cause of blindness in Southern Sudan. We conducted this survey in Ayod County of Jonglei State to estimate the need for intervention activities to eliminate blinding trachoma.

Methodology and findings: A cross-sectional two-stage cluster random survey was conducted in November 2006. All residents of selected households were clinically assessed for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading scheme. A total of 2,335 people from 392 households were examined, of whom 1,107 were over 14 years of age. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children 1-9 years of age was: trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) = 80.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.9-86.3); trachomatous inflammation intense (TI) = 60.7% (95% CI, 54.6-66.8); and TF and/or TI (active trachoma) = 88.3% (95% CI, 83.7-92.9). Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was 14.6% (95% CI, 10.9-18.3) in adults over 14 years of age; 2.9% (95% CI, 0.4-5.3) in children 1-14 years of age; and 8.4% (95% CI, 5.5-11.3) overall. The prevalence of corneal opacity in persons over 14 years of age with TT was 6.4% (95% CI, 4.5-8.3). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of trachoma signs between genders. Trachoma affected almost all households surveyed: 384/392 (98.0%) had at least one person with active trachoma and 130 (33.2%) had at least one person with trichiasis.

Conclusions: Trachoma is an unnecessary public health problem in Ayod. The high prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis confirms the severe burden of blinding trachoma found in other post-conflict areas of Southern Sudan. Based on WHO recommended thresholds, all aspects of the SAFE strategy are indicated to eliminate blinding trachoma in Ayod.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus