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Hyaluronidase of bloodsucking insects and its enhancing effect on leishmania infection in mice.

Volfova V, Hostomska J, Cerny M, Votypka J, Volf P - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2008)

Bottom Line: No activity was found in kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus, mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, tse-tse fly Glossina fuscipes, stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans and human louse Pediculus humanus.Hyaluronidases of different insects vary substantially in their molecular weight, the structure of the molecule and the sensitivity to reducing conditions or sodium dodecyl sulphate.As this enzyme is present in all Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia species studied to date, it seems to be one of the factors responsible for enhancing activity present in sand fly saliva.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. volf@cesnet.cz

ABSTRACT

Background: Salivary hyaluronidases have been described in a few bloodsucking arthropods. However, very little is known about the presence of this enzyme in various bloodsucking insects and no data are available on its effect on transmitted microorganisms. Here, we studied hyaluronidase activity in thirteen bloodsucking insects belonging to four different orders. In addition, we assessed the effect of hyaluronidase coinoculation on the outcome of Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice.

Principal findings: High hyaluronidase activity was detected in several Diptera tested, namely deer fly Chrysops viduatus, blackflies Odagmia ornata and Eusimilium latipes, mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, biting midge Culicoides kibunensis and sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. Lower activity was detected in cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. No activity was found in kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus, mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, tse-tse fly Glossina fuscipes, stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans and human louse Pediculus humanus. Hyaluronidases of different insects vary substantially in their molecular weight, the structure of the molecule and the sensitivity to reducing conditions or sodium dodecyl sulphate. Hyaluronidase exacerbates skin lesions caused by Leishmania major; more severe lesions developed in mice where L. major promastigotes were coinjected with hyaluronidase.

Conclusions: High hyaluronidase activities seem to be essential for insects with pool-feeding mode, where they facilitate the enlargement of the feeding lesion and serve as a spreading factor for other pharmacologically active compounds present in saliva. As this enzyme is present in all Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia species studied to date, it seems to be one of the factors responsible for enhancing activity present in sand fly saliva. We propose that salivary hyaluronidase may facilitate the spread of other vector-borne microorganisms, especially those transmitted by insects with high hyaluronidase activity, namely blackflies (Simuliidae), biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and horse flies (Tabanidae).

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Effect of SDS on hyaluronidase activity in SGE of Culex quinquefasciatus.Activity of hyaluronidase was tested by dot method on polyacrylamide gel with incorporated 0.002% hyaluronan and 0.001% SDS. Protein content per 2 µl dot is indicated in brackets. Sh = sheep testicular hyaluronidase (2 µg), Pp = Phlebotomus papatasi SGE (0.8 µg), Cq1 = Culex quinquefasciatus SGE (1.6 µg), Cq2 = Culex quinquefasciatus SGE (3.2 µg).
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pntd-0000294-g005: Effect of SDS on hyaluronidase activity in SGE of Culex quinquefasciatus.Activity of hyaluronidase was tested by dot method on polyacrylamide gel with incorporated 0.002% hyaluronan and 0.001% SDS. Protein content per 2 µl dot is indicated in brackets. Sh = sheep testicular hyaluronidase (2 µg), Pp = Phlebotomus papatasi SGE (0.8 µg), Cq1 = Culex quinquefasciatus SGE (1.6 µg), Cq2 = Culex quinquefasciatus SGE (3.2 µg).

Mentions: No hyaluronidase activity was detected in Culex quinquefasciatus SGE under either zymography conditions used, reducing and nonreducing. An additional experiment was performed to explain the contradictory results from the dot method and zymography; SGE of C. quinquefasciatus was dotted on the gel with copolymerized HA with and without the presence of SDS. Hydrolysis was observed only in the sample without SDS (Fig. 5).


Hyaluronidase of bloodsucking insects and its enhancing effect on leishmania infection in mice.

Volfova V, Hostomska J, Cerny M, Votypka J, Volf P - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2008)

Effect of SDS on hyaluronidase activity in SGE of Culex quinquefasciatus.Activity of hyaluronidase was tested by dot method on polyacrylamide gel with incorporated 0.002% hyaluronan and 0.001% SDS. Protein content per 2 µl dot is indicated in brackets. Sh = sheep testicular hyaluronidase (2 µg), Pp = Phlebotomus papatasi SGE (0.8 µg), Cq1 = Culex quinquefasciatus SGE (1.6 µg), Cq2 = Culex quinquefasciatus SGE (3.2 µg).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2553483&req=5

pntd-0000294-g005: Effect of SDS on hyaluronidase activity in SGE of Culex quinquefasciatus.Activity of hyaluronidase was tested by dot method on polyacrylamide gel with incorporated 0.002% hyaluronan and 0.001% SDS. Protein content per 2 µl dot is indicated in brackets. Sh = sheep testicular hyaluronidase (2 µg), Pp = Phlebotomus papatasi SGE (0.8 µg), Cq1 = Culex quinquefasciatus SGE (1.6 µg), Cq2 = Culex quinquefasciatus SGE (3.2 µg).
Mentions: No hyaluronidase activity was detected in Culex quinquefasciatus SGE under either zymography conditions used, reducing and nonreducing. An additional experiment was performed to explain the contradictory results from the dot method and zymography; SGE of C. quinquefasciatus was dotted on the gel with copolymerized HA with and without the presence of SDS. Hydrolysis was observed only in the sample without SDS (Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: No activity was found in kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus, mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, tse-tse fly Glossina fuscipes, stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans and human louse Pediculus humanus.Hyaluronidases of different insects vary substantially in their molecular weight, the structure of the molecule and the sensitivity to reducing conditions or sodium dodecyl sulphate.As this enzyme is present in all Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia species studied to date, it seems to be one of the factors responsible for enhancing activity present in sand fly saliva.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. volf@cesnet.cz

ABSTRACT

Background: Salivary hyaluronidases have been described in a few bloodsucking arthropods. However, very little is known about the presence of this enzyme in various bloodsucking insects and no data are available on its effect on transmitted microorganisms. Here, we studied hyaluronidase activity in thirteen bloodsucking insects belonging to four different orders. In addition, we assessed the effect of hyaluronidase coinoculation on the outcome of Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice.

Principal findings: High hyaluronidase activity was detected in several Diptera tested, namely deer fly Chrysops viduatus, blackflies Odagmia ornata and Eusimilium latipes, mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, biting midge Culicoides kibunensis and sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi. Lower activity was detected in cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. No activity was found in kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus, mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, tse-tse fly Glossina fuscipes, stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans and human louse Pediculus humanus. Hyaluronidases of different insects vary substantially in their molecular weight, the structure of the molecule and the sensitivity to reducing conditions or sodium dodecyl sulphate. Hyaluronidase exacerbates skin lesions caused by Leishmania major; more severe lesions developed in mice where L. major promastigotes were coinjected with hyaluronidase.

Conclusions: High hyaluronidase activities seem to be essential for insects with pool-feeding mode, where they facilitate the enlargement of the feeding lesion and serve as a spreading factor for other pharmacologically active compounds present in saliva. As this enzyme is present in all Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia species studied to date, it seems to be one of the factors responsible for enhancing activity present in sand fly saliva. We propose that salivary hyaluronidase may facilitate the spread of other vector-borne microorganisms, especially those transmitted by insects with high hyaluronidase activity, namely blackflies (Simuliidae), biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and horse flies (Tabanidae).

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus