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PfRH5: a novel reticulocyte-binding family homolog of plasmodium falciparum that binds to the erythrocyte, and an investigation of its receptor.

Rodriguez M, Lustigman S, Montero E, Oksov Y, Lobo CA - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: Attachment is inhibited if the target cells are exposed to high concentrations of trypsin, but not to lower concentrations or to chymotrypsin or neuraminidase.We have determined the affinity, copy number and apparent molecular mass of the receptor protein.Thus, we have shown that PfRH5 is a novel erythrocyte-binding ligand and the identification and partial characterization of the new RBC receptor may indicate the existence of an unrecognized P. falciparum invasion pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Blood-Borne Parasites, Lindsley Kimball Research Institute, The New York Blood Center, New York, New York, USA.

ABSTRACT
Multiple interactions between parasite ligands and their receptors on the human erythrocyte are a condition of successful Plasmodium falciparum invasion. The identification and characterization of these receptors presents a major challenge in the effort to understand the mechanism of invasion and to develop the means to prevent it. We describe here a novel member of the reticulocyte-binding family homolog (RH) of P. falciparum, PfRH5, and show that it binds to a previously unrecognized receptor on the RBC. PfRH5 is expressed as a 63 kDa protein and localized at the apical end of the invasive merozoite. We have expressed a fragment of PfRH5 which contains the RBC-binding domain and exhibits the same pattern of interactions with the RBC as the parent protein. Attachment is inhibited if the target cells are exposed to high concentrations of trypsin, but not to lower concentrations or to chymotrypsin or neuraminidase. We have determined the affinity, copy number and apparent molecular mass of the receptor protein. Thus, we have shown that PfRH5 is a novel erythrocyte-binding ligand and the identification and partial characterization of the new RBC receptor may indicate the existence of an unrecognized P. falciparum invasion pathway.

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Apical localization of PfRH5 in the merozoite.A Mature Dd2 schizonts were labeled with rabbit anti-PfRH5 IgG and counterstained with FITC-labeled anti-rabbit IgG (green) using immunofluorescence microscopy. B Colocalization studies: Mature Dd2 schizonts were double-labeled with anti-PfRH5 IgG (red) and anti-RhopH3 (green) monoclonal antibody. The merged staining (yellow) by both antibodies indicates their similar location within the parasite. C Immunoelectron microscopy confirming the localization of PfRH5 in the rhoptries within the developing merozoites in the Dd2 schizont. Parasites were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde. Staining was detected with rabbit anti-RH5 and anti-rabbit gold (10 nm). Scale bar represents 500 nm.
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pone-0003300-g002: Apical localization of PfRH5 in the merozoite.A Mature Dd2 schizonts were labeled with rabbit anti-PfRH5 IgG and counterstained with FITC-labeled anti-rabbit IgG (green) using immunofluorescence microscopy. B Colocalization studies: Mature Dd2 schizonts were double-labeled with anti-PfRH5 IgG (red) and anti-RhopH3 (green) monoclonal antibody. The merged staining (yellow) by both antibodies indicates their similar location within the parasite. C Immunoelectron microscopy confirming the localization of PfRH5 in the rhoptries within the developing merozoites in the Dd2 schizont. Parasites were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde. Staining was detected with rabbit anti-RH5 and anti-rabbit gold (10 nm). Scale bar represents 500 nm.

Mentions: All the PfRH proteins that have been described so far have been localized to the apical, invasive end of the merozoite. This should be true of PfRH5 if it plays a role in parasite entry. The subcellular localization of RH5 was determined by immunofluorescence using anti-RH5 rabbit antibodies. Fig. 2A shows the staining pattern obtained on late-stage schizonts demonstrating that RH5 is indeed located at the apical end of merozoites. The punctate staining in this region, wherein a single dot occasionally resolves into double foci, is a hallmark of rhoptry localization. Co-staining of late stage schizonts was then performed, using antibodies against a known rhoptry marker, PfRhopH3 [26]. Fig. 2 B shows the results of this dual IFA, and reveals a partial overlap of staining patterns by the two antisera. Thus, although both RhopH3 and PfRH5 may be present in the rhoptries, they may be located in different parts of the rhoptry.


PfRH5: a novel reticulocyte-binding family homolog of plasmodium falciparum that binds to the erythrocyte, and an investigation of its receptor.

Rodriguez M, Lustigman S, Montero E, Oksov Y, Lobo CA - PLoS ONE (2008)

Apical localization of PfRH5 in the merozoite.A Mature Dd2 schizonts were labeled with rabbit anti-PfRH5 IgG and counterstained with FITC-labeled anti-rabbit IgG (green) using immunofluorescence microscopy. B Colocalization studies: Mature Dd2 schizonts were double-labeled with anti-PfRH5 IgG (red) and anti-RhopH3 (green) monoclonal antibody. The merged staining (yellow) by both antibodies indicates their similar location within the parasite. C Immunoelectron microscopy confirming the localization of PfRH5 in the rhoptries within the developing merozoites in the Dd2 schizont. Parasites were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde. Staining was detected with rabbit anti-RH5 and anti-rabbit gold (10 nm). Scale bar represents 500 nm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2553180&req=5

pone-0003300-g002: Apical localization of PfRH5 in the merozoite.A Mature Dd2 schizonts were labeled with rabbit anti-PfRH5 IgG and counterstained with FITC-labeled anti-rabbit IgG (green) using immunofluorescence microscopy. B Colocalization studies: Mature Dd2 schizonts were double-labeled with anti-PfRH5 IgG (red) and anti-RhopH3 (green) monoclonal antibody. The merged staining (yellow) by both antibodies indicates their similar location within the parasite. C Immunoelectron microscopy confirming the localization of PfRH5 in the rhoptries within the developing merozoites in the Dd2 schizont. Parasites were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde. Staining was detected with rabbit anti-RH5 and anti-rabbit gold (10 nm). Scale bar represents 500 nm.
Mentions: All the PfRH proteins that have been described so far have been localized to the apical, invasive end of the merozoite. This should be true of PfRH5 if it plays a role in parasite entry. The subcellular localization of RH5 was determined by immunofluorescence using anti-RH5 rabbit antibodies. Fig. 2A shows the staining pattern obtained on late-stage schizonts demonstrating that RH5 is indeed located at the apical end of merozoites. The punctate staining in this region, wherein a single dot occasionally resolves into double foci, is a hallmark of rhoptry localization. Co-staining of late stage schizonts was then performed, using antibodies against a known rhoptry marker, PfRhopH3 [26]. Fig. 2 B shows the results of this dual IFA, and reveals a partial overlap of staining patterns by the two antisera. Thus, although both RhopH3 and PfRH5 may be present in the rhoptries, they may be located in different parts of the rhoptry.

Bottom Line: Attachment is inhibited if the target cells are exposed to high concentrations of trypsin, but not to lower concentrations or to chymotrypsin or neuraminidase.We have determined the affinity, copy number and apparent molecular mass of the receptor protein.Thus, we have shown that PfRH5 is a novel erythrocyte-binding ligand and the identification and partial characterization of the new RBC receptor may indicate the existence of an unrecognized P. falciparum invasion pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Blood-Borne Parasites, Lindsley Kimball Research Institute, The New York Blood Center, New York, New York, USA.

ABSTRACT
Multiple interactions between parasite ligands and their receptors on the human erythrocyte are a condition of successful Plasmodium falciparum invasion. The identification and characterization of these receptors presents a major challenge in the effort to understand the mechanism of invasion and to develop the means to prevent it. We describe here a novel member of the reticulocyte-binding family homolog (RH) of P. falciparum, PfRH5, and show that it binds to a previously unrecognized receptor on the RBC. PfRH5 is expressed as a 63 kDa protein and localized at the apical end of the invasive merozoite. We have expressed a fragment of PfRH5 which contains the RBC-binding domain and exhibits the same pattern of interactions with the RBC as the parent protein. Attachment is inhibited if the target cells are exposed to high concentrations of trypsin, but not to lower concentrations or to chymotrypsin or neuraminidase. We have determined the affinity, copy number and apparent molecular mass of the receptor protein. Thus, we have shown that PfRH5 is a novel erythrocyte-binding ligand and the identification and partial characterization of the new RBC receptor may indicate the existence of an unrecognized P. falciparum invasion pathway.

Show MeSH