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Trichinella spiralis: nurse cell formation with emphasis on analogy to muscle cell repair.

Wu Z, Sofronic-Milosavljevic Lj, Nagano I, Takahashi Y - Parasit Vectors (2008)

Bottom Line: The capsule is a residence of the parasite which is composed of the nurse cell and fibrous wall.The process of nurse cell formation is complex and includes infected muscle cell response (de-differentiation, cell cycle re-entry and arrest) and satellite cell responses (activation, proliferation and differentiation).This article reviews capsule formation with emphasis on this analogy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu, 501-1194, Japan. yu3@gifu-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Trichinella infection results in formation of a capsule in infected muscles. The capsule is a residence of the parasite which is composed of the nurse cell and fibrous wall. The process of nurse cell formation is complex and includes infected muscle cell response (de-differentiation, cell cycle re-entry and arrest) and satellite cell responses (activation, proliferation and differentiation). Some events that occur during the nurse cell formation are analogous to those occurring during muscle cell regeneration/repair. This article reviews capsule formation with emphasis on this analogy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic illustration of the involvement of c-Ski and TGF-β signaling pathway in nurse cell formation. Binding of TGF-β by the type II receptor on the cell surface initiates a cascade of signaling events. Activated type I receptor phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3 in the cytoplasm, which forms a complex with Smad4. The Smad2/3/4 complex moves to the nucleus and functionally collaborates with distinct transcription factors to turn on or off transcription of many TGF-β-responsive genes. C-Ski acts as a co-repressor to turn off the transcription, which results in the cell cycle arrest and transformation of Trichinella infected muscle cells. This figure referred the review by Shi and Massague [97].
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Figure 4: Schematic illustration of the involvement of c-Ski and TGF-β signaling pathway in nurse cell formation. Binding of TGF-β by the type II receptor on the cell surface initiates a cascade of signaling events. Activated type I receptor phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3 in the cytoplasm, which forms a complex with Smad4. The Smad2/3/4 complex moves to the nucleus and functionally collaborates with distinct transcription factors to turn on or off transcription of many TGF-β-responsive genes. C-Ski acts as a co-repressor to turn off the transcription, which results in the cell cycle arrest and transformation of Trichinella infected muscle cells. This figure referred the review by Shi and Massague [97].

Mentions: One of the important signaling pathways involved in cell cycle arrest is the TGF-β (transforming growth factor) signaling pathway. TGF-β is a ubiquitous cytokine that regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and morphogenesis [97]. Through a series of Smad proteins (Smad 2, Smad 3 and Smad 4), the TGF-β signaling pathway causes cells to cease proliferation and to down-regulates the genes which promote cell cycle progression though the S phase, leading to the arrest of the cell cycle (Fig 4).


Trichinella spiralis: nurse cell formation with emphasis on analogy to muscle cell repair.

Wu Z, Sofronic-Milosavljevic Lj, Nagano I, Takahashi Y - Parasit Vectors (2008)

Schematic illustration of the involvement of c-Ski and TGF-β signaling pathway in nurse cell formation. Binding of TGF-β by the type II receptor on the cell surface initiates a cascade of signaling events. Activated type I receptor phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3 in the cytoplasm, which forms a complex with Smad4. The Smad2/3/4 complex moves to the nucleus and functionally collaborates with distinct transcription factors to turn on or off transcription of many TGF-β-responsive genes. C-Ski acts as a co-repressor to turn off the transcription, which results in the cell cycle arrest and transformation of Trichinella infected muscle cells. This figure referred the review by Shi and Massague [97].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2538513&req=5

Figure 4: Schematic illustration of the involvement of c-Ski and TGF-β signaling pathway in nurse cell formation. Binding of TGF-β by the type II receptor on the cell surface initiates a cascade of signaling events. Activated type I receptor phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3 in the cytoplasm, which forms a complex with Smad4. The Smad2/3/4 complex moves to the nucleus and functionally collaborates with distinct transcription factors to turn on or off transcription of many TGF-β-responsive genes. C-Ski acts as a co-repressor to turn off the transcription, which results in the cell cycle arrest and transformation of Trichinella infected muscle cells. This figure referred the review by Shi and Massague [97].
Mentions: One of the important signaling pathways involved in cell cycle arrest is the TGF-β (transforming growth factor) signaling pathway. TGF-β is a ubiquitous cytokine that regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and morphogenesis [97]. Through a series of Smad proteins (Smad 2, Smad 3 and Smad 4), the TGF-β signaling pathway causes cells to cease proliferation and to down-regulates the genes which promote cell cycle progression though the S phase, leading to the arrest of the cell cycle (Fig 4).

Bottom Line: The capsule is a residence of the parasite which is composed of the nurse cell and fibrous wall.The process of nurse cell formation is complex and includes infected muscle cell response (de-differentiation, cell cycle re-entry and arrest) and satellite cell responses (activation, proliferation and differentiation).This article reviews capsule formation with emphasis on this analogy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu, 501-1194, Japan. yu3@gifu-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Trichinella infection results in formation of a capsule in infected muscles. The capsule is a residence of the parasite which is composed of the nurse cell and fibrous wall. The process of nurse cell formation is complex and includes infected muscle cell response (de-differentiation, cell cycle re-entry and arrest) and satellite cell responses (activation, proliferation and differentiation). Some events that occur during the nurse cell formation are analogous to those occurring during muscle cell regeneration/repair. This article reviews capsule formation with emphasis on this analogy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus