Limits...
Trichinella spiralis: nurse cell formation with emphasis on analogy to muscle cell repair.

Wu Z, Sofronic-Milosavljevic Lj, Nagano I, Takahashi Y - Parasit Vectors (2008)

Bottom Line: The capsule is a residence of the parasite which is composed of the nurse cell and fibrous wall.The process of nurse cell formation is complex and includes infected muscle cell response (de-differentiation, cell cycle re-entry and arrest) and satellite cell responses (activation, proliferation and differentiation).This article reviews capsule formation with emphasis on this analogy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu, 501-1194, Japan. yu3@gifu-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Trichinella infection results in formation of a capsule in infected muscles. The capsule is a residence of the parasite which is composed of the nurse cell and fibrous wall. The process of nurse cell formation is complex and includes infected muscle cell response (de-differentiation, cell cycle re-entry and arrest) and satellite cell responses (activation, proliferation and differentiation). Some events that occur during the nurse cell formation are analogous to those occurring during muscle cell regeneration/repair. This article reviews capsule formation with emphasis on this analogy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Muscle cell regeneration: A: Normal muscle cell with myonuclei and satellite cells; B: Damaged muscle cell. Muscle injury causes inflammatory response and mononucleated cells are mobilized; C: Necrosis occurs in the damaged site. Macrophages invade the damaged tissue for cleaning up cellular debris. Satellite cells are activated; D: Activated satellite cells proliferate, differentiate and fuse to each other or with existing damaged muscle fibers; E: The regenerated new muscle cell in smaller caliber with centrally-located myonuclei and renewed satellite cells. The figure is modified from the textbook of MYOLOGY by Engel and Franzini-Armstrong. Nurse cell formation: F: Invasion of Trichinella larva causes dissolution and complete loss of myofibrillar organization; G: Satellite cells are activated. Basophilic transformation occurs in the infected muscle cell. A septum is formed to limit damaged area; H: Activated satellite cells proliferate, differentiate and fuse to each other or with the infected muscle cell, which provides eosinophilic cytoplasm. The infected muscle cell dedifferentiates, reenters cell cycle and arrests at G2/M. There are many hypertrophy nuclei; I and J: The eosinophilic cytoplasm (which is provided by satellite cells) increases in volume and the basophilic cytoplasm (which originates from infected muscle cell) decreases in volume; K: The mature nurse cell is formed. The cytoplasm of nurse cell is eosinophilic.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2538513&req=5

Figure 1: Muscle cell regeneration: A: Normal muscle cell with myonuclei and satellite cells; B: Damaged muscle cell. Muscle injury causes inflammatory response and mononucleated cells are mobilized; C: Necrosis occurs in the damaged site. Macrophages invade the damaged tissue for cleaning up cellular debris. Satellite cells are activated; D: Activated satellite cells proliferate, differentiate and fuse to each other or with existing damaged muscle fibers; E: The regenerated new muscle cell in smaller caliber with centrally-located myonuclei and renewed satellite cells. The figure is modified from the textbook of MYOLOGY by Engel and Franzini-Armstrong. Nurse cell formation: F: Invasion of Trichinella larva causes dissolution and complete loss of myofibrillar organization; G: Satellite cells are activated. Basophilic transformation occurs in the infected muscle cell. A septum is formed to limit damaged area; H: Activated satellite cells proliferate, differentiate and fuse to each other or with the infected muscle cell, which provides eosinophilic cytoplasm. The infected muscle cell dedifferentiates, reenters cell cycle and arrests at G2/M. There are many hypertrophy nuclei; I and J: The eosinophilic cytoplasm (which is provided by satellite cells) increases in volume and the basophilic cytoplasm (which originates from infected muscle cell) decreases in volume; K: The mature nurse cell is formed. The cytoplasm of nurse cell is eosinophilic.

Mentions: Following muscle degeneration, the repair process of muscle is activated. The activation and proliferation of satellite cells are important events necessary for muscle regeneration. The proliferation of satellite cells provides a sufficient source of new myonuclei for muscle repair. Satellite cells differentiate and fuse to each other or with existing damaged fibers for repair to form new myofibers [4,22]. The fundamental morphological characteristics are that newly formed myofibers have small caliber with centrally located myonuclei (Fig 1).


Trichinella spiralis: nurse cell formation with emphasis on analogy to muscle cell repair.

Wu Z, Sofronic-Milosavljevic Lj, Nagano I, Takahashi Y - Parasit Vectors (2008)

Muscle cell regeneration: A: Normal muscle cell with myonuclei and satellite cells; B: Damaged muscle cell. Muscle injury causes inflammatory response and mononucleated cells are mobilized; C: Necrosis occurs in the damaged site. Macrophages invade the damaged tissue for cleaning up cellular debris. Satellite cells are activated; D: Activated satellite cells proliferate, differentiate and fuse to each other or with existing damaged muscle fibers; E: The regenerated new muscle cell in smaller caliber with centrally-located myonuclei and renewed satellite cells. The figure is modified from the textbook of MYOLOGY by Engel and Franzini-Armstrong. Nurse cell formation: F: Invasion of Trichinella larva causes dissolution and complete loss of myofibrillar organization; G: Satellite cells are activated. Basophilic transformation occurs in the infected muscle cell. A septum is formed to limit damaged area; H: Activated satellite cells proliferate, differentiate and fuse to each other or with the infected muscle cell, which provides eosinophilic cytoplasm. The infected muscle cell dedifferentiates, reenters cell cycle and arrests at G2/M. There are many hypertrophy nuclei; I and J: The eosinophilic cytoplasm (which is provided by satellite cells) increases in volume and the basophilic cytoplasm (which originates from infected muscle cell) decreases in volume; K: The mature nurse cell is formed. The cytoplasm of nurse cell is eosinophilic.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2538513&req=5

Figure 1: Muscle cell regeneration: A: Normal muscle cell with myonuclei and satellite cells; B: Damaged muscle cell. Muscle injury causes inflammatory response and mononucleated cells are mobilized; C: Necrosis occurs in the damaged site. Macrophages invade the damaged tissue for cleaning up cellular debris. Satellite cells are activated; D: Activated satellite cells proliferate, differentiate and fuse to each other or with existing damaged muscle fibers; E: The regenerated new muscle cell in smaller caliber with centrally-located myonuclei and renewed satellite cells. The figure is modified from the textbook of MYOLOGY by Engel and Franzini-Armstrong. Nurse cell formation: F: Invasion of Trichinella larva causes dissolution and complete loss of myofibrillar organization; G: Satellite cells are activated. Basophilic transformation occurs in the infected muscle cell. A septum is formed to limit damaged area; H: Activated satellite cells proliferate, differentiate and fuse to each other or with the infected muscle cell, which provides eosinophilic cytoplasm. The infected muscle cell dedifferentiates, reenters cell cycle and arrests at G2/M. There are many hypertrophy nuclei; I and J: The eosinophilic cytoplasm (which is provided by satellite cells) increases in volume and the basophilic cytoplasm (which originates from infected muscle cell) decreases in volume; K: The mature nurse cell is formed. The cytoplasm of nurse cell is eosinophilic.
Mentions: Following muscle degeneration, the repair process of muscle is activated. The activation and proliferation of satellite cells are important events necessary for muscle regeneration. The proliferation of satellite cells provides a sufficient source of new myonuclei for muscle repair. Satellite cells differentiate and fuse to each other or with existing damaged fibers for repair to form new myofibers [4,22]. The fundamental morphological characteristics are that newly formed myofibers have small caliber with centrally located myonuclei (Fig 1).

Bottom Line: The capsule is a residence of the parasite which is composed of the nurse cell and fibrous wall.The process of nurse cell formation is complex and includes infected muscle cell response (de-differentiation, cell cycle re-entry and arrest) and satellite cell responses (activation, proliferation and differentiation).This article reviews capsule formation with emphasis on this analogy.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Parasitology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu, 501-1194, Japan. yu3@gifu-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Trichinella infection results in formation of a capsule in infected muscles. The capsule is a residence of the parasite which is composed of the nurse cell and fibrous wall. The process of nurse cell formation is complex and includes infected muscle cell response (de-differentiation, cell cycle re-entry and arrest) and satellite cell responses (activation, proliferation and differentiation). Some events that occur during the nurse cell formation are analogous to those occurring during muscle cell regeneration/repair. This article reviews capsule formation with emphasis on this analogy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus