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Increased expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator system by Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial cells.

Kenny S, Duval C, Sammut SJ, Steele I, Pritchard DM, Atherton JC, Argent RH, Dimaline R, Dockray GJ, Varro A - Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2008)

Bottom Line: Real-time PCR of biopsies from gastric corpus, but not antrum, showed significantly increased PAI-1, uPA, and uPAR in H. pylori-positive patients.H. pylori also stimulated soluble and cell surface-bound uPA activity, and both were further increased by PAI-1 knockdown, consistent with PAI-1 inhibition of endogenous uPA.The proliferative effects of uPA were inhibited by immunoneutralization of the EGF receptor and of heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) by the mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197 and an EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiological Laboratory, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Crown St., Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.

ABSTRACT
The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, but the relevant pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. We now report that H. pylori stimulates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and its receptor (uPAR) in gastric epithelial cells and the consequences for epithelial cell proliferation. Real-time PCR of biopsies from gastric corpus, but not antrum, showed significantly increased PAI-1, uPA, and uPAR in H. pylori-positive patients. Transfection of primary human gastric epithelial cells with uPA, PAI-1, or uPAR promoters in luciferase reporter constructs revealed expression of all three in H+/K+ATPase- and vesicular monoamine transporter 2-expressing cells; uPA was also expressed in pepsinogen- and uPAR-containing trefoil peptide-1-expressing cells. In each case expression was increased in response to H. pylori and for uPA, but not PAI-1 or uPAR, required the virulence factor CagE. H. pylori also stimulated soluble and cell surface-bound uPA activity, and both were further increased by PAI-1 knockdown, consistent with PAI-1 inhibition of endogenous uPA. H. pylori stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, which was inhibited by uPA immunoneutralization and uPAR knockdown; exogenous uPA also stimulated proliferation that was further increased after PAI-1 knockdown. The proliferative effects of uPA were inhibited by immunoneutralization of the EGF receptor and of heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) by the mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197 and an EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. H. pylori induction of uPA therefore leads to epithelial proliferation through activation of HB-EGF and is normally inhibited by concomitant induction of PAI-1; treatments directed at inhibition of uPA may slow the progression to gastric cancer.

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Increased gastric epithelial cell proliferation in response to H. pylori and uPA. A: H. pylori stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation of human primary gastric epithelial cells, and this was enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown. B: addition of uPA (500 ng/ml) mimicked the stimulatory effect of H. pylori on BrdU incorporation, and this was also enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown. C: representative examples of BrdU-labeled cells (right, arrows) in control (top) and uPA-treated glands; DAPI staining of all nuclei shown on left; n = 4, P < 0.05, ANOVA (*control vs. H. pylori or uPA; **H. pylori or uPA along compared with PAI-1). CSO, control scrambled oligonucleotides.
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f6: Increased gastric epithelial cell proliferation in response to H. pylori and uPA. A: H. pylori stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation of human primary gastric epithelial cells, and this was enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown. B: addition of uPA (500 ng/ml) mimicked the stimulatory effect of H. pylori on BrdU incorporation, and this was also enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown. C: representative examples of BrdU-labeled cells (right, arrows) in control (top) and uPA-treated glands; DAPI staining of all nuclei shown on left; n = 4, P < 0.05, ANOVA (*control vs. H. pylori or uPA; **H. pylori or uPA along compared with PAI-1). CSO, control scrambled oligonucleotides.

Mentions: Previous work has linked proliferative responses to H. pylori with activation of the EGF receptor, including stimulation of the ligand HB-EGF and its liberation by proteolysis (29, 55). In primary human gastric glands, we showed that H. pylori increased BrdU incorporation and that the response was further enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown (Fig. 6A). Consistent with the idea that PAI-1 inhibited uPA in this system, we then showed that uPA itself increased BrdU incorporation, and the response was again further enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown (Fig. 6, B and C).


Increased expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator system by Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial cells.

Kenny S, Duval C, Sammut SJ, Steele I, Pritchard DM, Atherton JC, Argent RH, Dimaline R, Dockray GJ, Varro A - Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2008)

Increased gastric epithelial cell proliferation in response to H. pylori and uPA. A: H. pylori stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation of human primary gastric epithelial cells, and this was enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown. B: addition of uPA (500 ng/ml) mimicked the stimulatory effect of H. pylori on BrdU incorporation, and this was also enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown. C: representative examples of BrdU-labeled cells (right, arrows) in control (top) and uPA-treated glands; DAPI staining of all nuclei shown on left; n = 4, P < 0.05, ANOVA (*control vs. H. pylori or uPA; **H. pylori or uPA along compared with PAI-1). CSO, control scrambled oligonucleotides.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2536790&req=5

f6: Increased gastric epithelial cell proliferation in response to H. pylori and uPA. A: H. pylori stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation of human primary gastric epithelial cells, and this was enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown. B: addition of uPA (500 ng/ml) mimicked the stimulatory effect of H. pylori on BrdU incorporation, and this was also enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown. C: representative examples of BrdU-labeled cells (right, arrows) in control (top) and uPA-treated glands; DAPI staining of all nuclei shown on left; n = 4, P < 0.05, ANOVA (*control vs. H. pylori or uPA; **H. pylori or uPA along compared with PAI-1). CSO, control scrambled oligonucleotides.
Mentions: Previous work has linked proliferative responses to H. pylori with activation of the EGF receptor, including stimulation of the ligand HB-EGF and its liberation by proteolysis (29, 55). In primary human gastric glands, we showed that H. pylori increased BrdU incorporation and that the response was further enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown (Fig. 6A). Consistent with the idea that PAI-1 inhibited uPA in this system, we then showed that uPA itself increased BrdU incorporation, and the response was again further enhanced by PAI-1 knockdown (Fig. 6, B and C).

Bottom Line: Real-time PCR of biopsies from gastric corpus, but not antrum, showed significantly increased PAI-1, uPA, and uPAR in H. pylori-positive patients.H. pylori also stimulated soluble and cell surface-bound uPA activity, and both were further increased by PAI-1 knockdown, consistent with PAI-1 inhibition of endogenous uPA.The proliferative effects of uPA were inhibited by immunoneutralization of the EGF receptor and of heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) by the mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197 and an EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiological Laboratory, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Crown St., Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.

ABSTRACT
The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, but the relevant pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. We now report that H. pylori stimulates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and its receptor (uPAR) in gastric epithelial cells and the consequences for epithelial cell proliferation. Real-time PCR of biopsies from gastric corpus, but not antrum, showed significantly increased PAI-1, uPA, and uPAR in H. pylori-positive patients. Transfection of primary human gastric epithelial cells with uPA, PAI-1, or uPAR promoters in luciferase reporter constructs revealed expression of all three in H+/K+ATPase- and vesicular monoamine transporter 2-expressing cells; uPA was also expressed in pepsinogen- and uPAR-containing trefoil peptide-1-expressing cells. In each case expression was increased in response to H. pylori and for uPA, but not PAI-1 or uPAR, required the virulence factor CagE. H. pylori also stimulated soluble and cell surface-bound uPA activity, and both were further increased by PAI-1 knockdown, consistent with PAI-1 inhibition of endogenous uPA. H. pylori stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, which was inhibited by uPA immunoneutralization and uPAR knockdown; exogenous uPA also stimulated proliferation that was further increased after PAI-1 knockdown. The proliferative effects of uPA were inhibited by immunoneutralization of the EGF receptor and of heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) by the mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197 and an EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. H. pylori induction of uPA therefore leads to epithelial proliferation through activation of HB-EGF and is normally inhibited by concomitant induction of PAI-1; treatments directed at inhibition of uPA may slow the progression to gastric cancer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus