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Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment.

Thomas T, Evans FF, Schleheck D, Mai-Prochnow A, Burke C, Penesyan A, Dalisay DS, Stelzer-Braid S, Saunders N, Johnson J, Ferriera S, Kjelleberg S, Egan S - PLoS ONE (2008)

Bottom Line: To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains.We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers.The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface-associated community.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Marine Bio-Innovation and School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. t.thomas@unsw.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds) by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions.

Methodology/principal findings: To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage). Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions.

Conclusions/significance: The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface-associated community. We have also identified properties that could mediate interactions with surfaces other than its currently recognised hosts. This together with the detection of known virulence genes leads to the hypothesis that P. tunicata maintains a carefully regulated balance between beneficial and detrimental interactions with a range of host surfaces.

Show MeSH
Peptidases in predicted secretome of P. tunicata.Comparison of the peptidase profiles in the secretome of the three sequenced Pseudoalteromonas species. The total number of proteins that belong to the peptidase group is 36 in P. tunicata, 12 in P. atlantica and 15 in P. haloplanktis. The colour bars represent the percentage of each subgroup of peptidases. Details of each peptidase family type can be found at http://merops.sanger.ac.uk.
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pone-0003252-g005: Peptidases in predicted secretome of P. tunicata.Comparison of the peptidase profiles in the secretome of the three sequenced Pseudoalteromonas species. The total number of proteins that belong to the peptidase group is 36 in P. tunicata, 12 in P. atlantica and 15 in P. haloplanktis. The colour bars represent the percentage of each subgroup of peptidases. Details of each peptidase family type can be found at http://merops.sanger.ac.uk.

Mentions: The proteolytic potential of the P. tunicata secretome was high in comparison to P. haloplanktis and P. atlantica, with the identification of at least 36 peptidases (Figure 5). Two peptidases encoded in the P. tunicata genome match to collagenases in Vibrio sp. and Clostridium sp., and are not found in P. atlantica or P. haloplanktis. Collagen types I and II are the most abundant in cartilages of vertebrates, while marine invertebrates (including chordates) have a type of collagen similar to collagen type II [73]. Another secreted, proteolytic enzyme is a putative cyanophycinase, which degrades the amino-acid polymer cyanophycin, an important intracellular nitrogen-storage polymer predominantly found in cyanobacteria [74].


Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment.

Thomas T, Evans FF, Schleheck D, Mai-Prochnow A, Burke C, Penesyan A, Dalisay DS, Stelzer-Braid S, Saunders N, Johnson J, Ferriera S, Kjelleberg S, Egan S - PLoS ONE (2008)

Peptidases in predicted secretome of P. tunicata.Comparison of the peptidase profiles in the secretome of the three sequenced Pseudoalteromonas species. The total number of proteins that belong to the peptidase group is 36 in P. tunicata, 12 in P. atlantica and 15 in P. haloplanktis. The colour bars represent the percentage of each subgroup of peptidases. Details of each peptidase family type can be found at http://merops.sanger.ac.uk.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC2536512&req=5

pone-0003252-g005: Peptidases in predicted secretome of P. tunicata.Comparison of the peptidase profiles in the secretome of the three sequenced Pseudoalteromonas species. The total number of proteins that belong to the peptidase group is 36 in P. tunicata, 12 in P. atlantica and 15 in P. haloplanktis. The colour bars represent the percentage of each subgroup of peptidases. Details of each peptidase family type can be found at http://merops.sanger.ac.uk.
Mentions: The proteolytic potential of the P. tunicata secretome was high in comparison to P. haloplanktis and P. atlantica, with the identification of at least 36 peptidases (Figure 5). Two peptidases encoded in the P. tunicata genome match to collagenases in Vibrio sp. and Clostridium sp., and are not found in P. atlantica or P. haloplanktis. Collagen types I and II are the most abundant in cartilages of vertebrates, while marine invertebrates (including chordates) have a type of collagen similar to collagen type II [73]. Another secreted, proteolytic enzyme is a putative cyanophycinase, which degrades the amino-acid polymer cyanophycin, an important intracellular nitrogen-storage polymer predominantly found in cyanobacteria [74].

Bottom Line: To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains.We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers.The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface-associated community.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre of Marine Bio-Innovation and School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. t.thomas@unsw.edu.au

ABSTRACT

Background: Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds) by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions.

Methodology/principal findings: To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage). Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions.

Conclusions/significance: The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface-associated community. We have also identified properties that could mediate interactions with surfaces other than its currently recognised hosts. This together with the detection of known virulence genes leads to the hypothesis that P. tunicata maintains a carefully regulated balance between beneficial and detrimental interactions with a range of host surfaces.

Show MeSH